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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
____________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
_______________________________________________
FOR ANNUAL AND TRANSITION REPORTS PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                      
Commission File Number: 001-35591
_______________________________________________
BGC Group, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
_______________________________________________
Delaware
86-3748217
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
  
499 Park Avenue, New York,NY10022
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)(Zip Code)
(212) 610-2200
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading
Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A Common Stock, $0.01 par value
BGC
The Nasdaq Stock Market, LLC
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated Filer
Accelerated Filer
Non-accelerated Filer
Smaller Reporting Company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.  
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.    
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to § 240.10D-1(b).    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  
The aggregate market value of voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant, based upon the closing price of the Class A common stock on June 30, 2023 as reported on Nasdaq, was approximately $1,486,449,921.
Indicate the number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant’s classes of common stock, as of the latest practicable date.
On February 27, 2024, the registrant had 384,393,744 shares of Class A common stock, $0.01 par value, and 109,452,953 shares of Class B common stock, $0.01 par value, outstanding.
_______________________________________________
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE.
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2024 annual meeting of stockholders (the “2024 Proxy Statement”) are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Annual Report on Form 10‑K. We anticipate that we will file the 2024 Proxy Statement with the SEC on or before April 29, 2024.



BGC Group, Inc.
2023 FORM 10‑K ANNUAL REPORT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ITEM 1C.
 
 

Except as otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, as used herein, the terms “BGC,” the “Company,” “we,” “our,” and “us” refer to: (i) following the closing of the Corporate Conversion, effective July 1, 2023, BGC Group and its consolidated subsidiaries, including BGC Partners; and (ii) prior to the effective time of the Corporate Conversion, BGC Partners and its consolidated subsidiaries. See Note 1—“Organization and Basis of Presentation” to the Consolidated Financial Statements herein for more information regarding the Corporate Conversion, and refer to the “Glossary of Terms, Abbreviations and Acronyms” for the definitions of terms used above and throughout the remainder of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.


GLOSSARY OF TERMS, ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
The following terms, abbreviations and acronyms are used to identify frequently used terms and phrases that may be used in this report: 
TERMDEFINITION
2019 Form S-4 Registration Statement
On September 13, 2019, BGC filed a registration statement on Form S-4 with respect to the offer and sale of up to 20.0 million shares of BGC Class A common stock in connection with business combination transactions, including acquisition of other businesses, assets, properties or securities
2023 Deed of AmendmentOn July 12, 2023, Mr. Windeatt executed a Deed of Amendment amending his existing Deed of Adherence with the U.K. Partnership regarding his employment
ACER
Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators
Adjusted EarningsA non-GAAP financial measure used by the Company to evaluate financial performance, which primarily excludes (i) certain non-cash items and other expenses that generally do not involve the receipt or outlay of cash and do not dilute existing stockholders, and (ii) certain gains and charges that management believes do not best reflect the ordinary results of BGC
ADVAverage daily volume
APIApplication Programming Interface
April 2008 distribution rights sharesCantor’s deferred stock distribution rights provided to current and former Cantor partners on April 1, 2008
AquaAqua Securities L.P., an alternative electronic trading platform, which offers new pools of block liquidity to the global equities markets and is a 49%-owned equity method investment of the Company and 51% owned by Cantor
ASCAccounting Standards Codification
ASUAccounting Standards Update
Audit CommitteeAudit Committee of the Board
August 2022 Sales AgreementCEO Program sales agreement, by and between the Company and CF&Co, dated August 12, 2022, pursuant to which the Company can offer and sell up to an aggregate of $300.0 million of shares of BGC Class A common stock
Berkeley Point
Berkeley Point Financial LLC, previously a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company acquired on September 8, 2017 and contributed to Newmark in the Separation
BessoBesso Insurance Group Limited, formerly a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, acquired on February 28, 2017. Sold to The Ardonagh Group on November 1, 2021 as part of the Insurance Business Disposition
BGC
(i) Following the closing of the Corporate Conversion, BGC Group and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries, including BGC Partners, and (ii) prior to the closing of the Corporate Conversion, BGC Partners and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries
BGC Class A common stock or our Class A common stock
BGC Class A common stock, par value $0.01 per share
BGC Class B common stock or our Class B common stock
BGC Class B common stock, par value $0.01 per share
BGC Credit Agreement
Agreement between BGC Partners and Cantor, dated March 19, 2018, that provides for each party or its subsidiaries to borrow up to $250.0 million, as amended on August 6, 2018 to increase the facility to $400.0 million, and assumed by BGC Group on October 6, 2023
BGC Derivative Markets
BGC Derivative Markets L.P.
2

TERMDEFINITION
BGC Entity Group
BGC Partners, BGC Holdings, BGC U.S. OpCo and their respective subsidiaries (other than, prior to the Spin-Off, the Newmark Group), collectively, and in each case as such entities existed prior to the Corporate Conversion
BGC Financial or BGCF
BGC Financial, L.P.
BGC Global OpCo
BGC Global Holdings, L.P., an operating partnership, which holds the non-U.S. businesses of BGC and which is indirectly wholly owned, following the closing of the Corporate Conversion, by BGC Group
BGC Group
BGC Group, Inc., and where applicable its consolidated subsidiaries
BGC Group 3.750% Senior Notes
$255.5 million principal amount of 3.750% senior notes maturing on October 1, 2024 and issued on October 6, 2023 in connection with the Exchange Offer
BGC Group 4.375% Senior Notes
$288.2 million principal amount of 4.375% senior notes maturing on December 15, 2025 and issued on October 6, 2023 in connection with the Exchange Offer
BGC Group 8.000% Senior Notes
$347.2 million principal amount of 8.000% senior notes maturing on May 25, 2028 and issued on October 6, 2023 in connection with the Exchange Offer
BGC Group Equity Plan
Eighth Amended and Restated BGC Partners Long Term Incentive Plan, as amended and restated and renamed the “BGC Group, Inc. Long Term Incentive Plan” and assumed by BGC Group in connection with the Corporate Conversion
BGC Group Incentive Plan
Second Amended and Restated BGC Partners Incentive Bonus Compensation Plan, as amended and restated and renamed the “BGC Group, Inc. Incentive Bonus Compensation Plan” and assumed by BGC Group in connection with the Corporate Conversion
BGC Group Notes
BGC Group 3.750% Senior Notes, BGC Group 4.375% Senior Notes and BGC Group 8.000% Senior Notes issued by BGC Group
BGC Holdings
BGC Holdings, L.P., an entity which, prior to the Corporate Conversion, was owned by Cantor, Founding Partners, BGC employee partners and, after the Separation, Newmark employee partners
BGC Holdings DistributionPro-rata distribution, pursuant to the Separation and Distribution Agreement, by BGC Holdings to its partners of all of the exchangeable limited partnership interests of Newmark Holdings owned by BGC Holdings immediately prior to the distribution, completed on the Distribution Date
BGC Holdings Limited Partnership Agreement
Second Amended and Restated BGC Holdings Limited Partnership Agreement
BGC OpCosBGC U.S. OpCo and BGC Global OpCo, collectively
BGC PartnersBGC Partners, Inc. and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries
BGC Partners 3.750% Senior Notes
$300.0 million principal amount of 3.750% senior notes maturing on October 1, 2024 and issued on September 27, 2019. Following the Exchange Offer on October 6, 2023 $44.5 million aggregate principal amount of the BGC Partners 3.750% Senior Notes remain outstanding
BGC Partners 4.375% Senior Notes
$300.0 million principal amount of 4.375% senior notes maturing on December 15, 2025 and issued on July 10, 2020. Following the Exchange Offer on October 6, 2023 $11.8 million aggregate principal amount of the BGC Partners 4.375% Senior Notes remain outstanding
BGC Partners 5.375% Senior Notes
$450.0 million principal amount of 5.375% senior notes which matured on July 24, 2023 and were issued on July 24, 2018
BGC Partners 8.000% Senior Notes
$350.0 million principal amount of 8.000% senior notes maturing on May 25, 2028 and issued on May 25, 2023. Following the Exchange Offer on October 6, 2023 $2.8 million aggregate principal amount of the BGC Partners 8.000% Senior Notes remain outstanding
BGC Partners Equity Plan
Eighth Amended and Restated Long Term Incentive Plan, approved by BGC Partners’ stockholders at the annual meeting of stockholders on November 22, 2021
BGC Partners Incentive Plan
BGC Partners’ Second Amended and Restated Incentive Bonus Compensation Plan, approved by BGC Partners’ stockholders at the annual meeting of stockholders on June 6, 2017
3

TERMDEFINITION
BGC Partners Notes
BGC Partners 3.750% Senior Notes, BGC Partners 4.375% Senior Notes, BGC Partners 5.375% Senior Notes and BGC Partners 8.000% Senior Notes issued by BGC Partners
BGC U.S. OpCo
BGC Partners, L.P., an operating partnership, which holds the U.S. businesses of BGC and which is indirectly wholly owned, following the closing of the Corporate Conversion, by BGC Group
BoardBoard of Directors of the Company
BrexitExit of the U.K. from the EU
Cantor
Cantor Fitzgerald, L.P. and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries
Cantor group
Cantor and its subsidiaries other than BGC, including Newmark
Cantor units
Limited partnership interests, prior to the Corporate Conversion, of BGC Holdings, held by the Cantor group, which BGC Holdings units were exchangeable into shares of BGC Class A common stock or BGC Class B common stock, as applicable
CCRECantor Commercial Real Estate Company, L.P.
CECLCurrent Expected Credit Losses
CEO ProgramControlled equity offering program
CF&CoCantor Fitzgerald & Co., a wholly owned broker-dealer subsidiary of Cantor
CFGMCF Group Management, Inc., the general partner of Cantor
CFTCCommodity Futures Trading Commission
Charity DayBGC’s annual event held on September 11th where employees of the Company raise proceeds for charity
CIO
Chief Information Officer
CISO
Chief Information Security Officer
Class B Issuance
Issuance by BGC Partners of 10,323,366 and 712,907 shares of BGC Class B common stock to Cantor and CFGM, respectively, in exchange for an aggregate of 11,036,273 shares of BGC Class A common stock under the Exchange Agreement, completed on November 23, 2018
Clawback Policy
Compensation recovery policy
CME
CME Group Inc. a leading derivatives marketplace, made up of four exchanges: CME, CBOT, NYMEX and COMEX
Company
Refers to (i) from after the effective time of the Corporate Conversion, BGC Group and its consolidated subsidiaries, including BGC Partners; and (ii) prior to the effective time of the Corporate Conversion, BGC Partners and its consolidated subsidiaries
Company Debt Securities
The BGC Group 3.750% Senior Notes, BGC Group 4.375% Senior Notes, BGC Group 8.000% Senior Notes, the BGC Partners Notes and any future debt securities issued by the Company or its subsidiaries
Company Equity Securities
BGC Group stock or other equity securities
Compensation CommitteeCompensation Committee of the Board
ContiCap
ContiCap SA, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, acquired on November 1, 2023
Contribution RatioEqual to a BGC Holdings limited partnership interest multiplied by one, divided by 2.2 (or 0.4545)
4

TERMDEFINITION
Corporate Conversion
A series of mergers and related transactions pursuant to which, effective at 12:02 AM Eastern Time on July 1, 2023, BGC Partners and BGC Holdings became wholly owned subsidiaries of BGC Group, transforming the organizational structure of the BGC businesses from an “Up-C” structure to a simplified “Full C-Corporation structure
Corporate Conversion Agreement
The Corporate Conversion Agreement entered into on November 15, 2022, and as amended on March 29, 2023, by and among BGC Partners, BGC Holdings, BGC Group, Inc. and other affiliated entities, and, solely for the purposes of certain provisions therein, Cantor, that provides for the Corporate Conversion of the BGC businesses
Corporate Conversion Transactions
The Corporation Conversion Transactions refers to the series of mergers described in the Corporate Conversion Agreement and related transactions
Corporate Conversion Mergers
The Holdings Reorganization Merger, the Corporate Merger, and the Holdings Merger, collectively
Corporate Merger
The merger of Merger Sub 1 with and into BGC Partners on July 1, 2023
COVID-19Coronavirus Disease 2019
Credit Facility
A $150.0 million credit facility between BGC Group and an affiliate of Cantor entered into on April 21, 2017, which was terminated on March 19, 2018
DCMDesignated Contract Market
DCODerivatives Clearing Organization
Deed
Mr. Windeatt’s Deed of Adherence, as amended, with the U.K. Partnership regarding the terms of employment
DGCL
Delaware General Corporation Law
Distribution Date
November 30, 2018, the date that BGC Partners and BGC Holdings completed the Spin-Off and the BGC Holdings Distribution, respectively
Dodd-Frank ActDodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act
DRIP
Dividend Reinvestment and Stock Purchase Plan
DRIP Registration Statement
Registration statement on Form S-3 with respect to the offer and sale of up to 10.0 million shares of BGC Class A common stock under the DRIP
DTCC
Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation
ECBEuropean Central Bank
Ed BrokingEd Broking Group Limited, formerly a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, acquired on January 31, 2019 and sold to The Ardonagh Group on November 1, 2021 as part of the Insurance Business Disposition
EMIREuropean Market Infrastructure Regulation
EPSEarnings Per Share
Equity Plan Registration Statement
BGC Group filed Form S-8 on July 3, 2023, registering the offer and sale of up to 600 million shares of BGC Class A common stock
ESGEnvironmental, social and governance, including sustainability or similar items
eSpeedVarious assets comprising the Fully Electronic portion of the Company’s former benchmark on-the-run U.S. Treasury brokerage, market data and co-location service businesses, sold to Nasdaq on June 28, 2013
ETPs
Exchange-traded products
5

TERMDEFINITION
ETR
Effective Tax Rate
EUEuropean Union
Exchange ActSecurities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended
Exchange Agreement
A letter agreement by and between BGC Partners, Cantor and CFGM, dated June 5, 2015, that, prior to the Corporate Conversion, granted Cantor and CFGM the right to exchange shares of BGC Class A common stock into shares of BGC Class B common stock on a one-to-one basis up to the limits described therein, which agreement was terminated in connection with the Corporate Conversion
Exchange Offer
Consent solicitations and offers to exchange the BGC Partners 3.750% Senior Notes, BGC Partners 4.375% Senior Notes and BGC Partners 8.000% Senior Notes issued by BGC Partners for the BGC Group 3.750% Senior Notes, BGC Group 4.375% Senior Notes and BGC Group 8.000% Senior Notes issued by BGC Group, in each case with substantially similar terms to the corresponding series of BGC Partners Notes, completed on October 6, 2023
Exchange RatioRatio by which a Newmark Holdings limited partnership interest can be exchanged for shares of Newmark Class A or Class B common stock
FASBFinancial Accounting Standards Board
FCAFinancial Conduct Authority of the U.K.
FCMFutures Commission Merchant
FDIC
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
February 2012 distribution rights sharesCantor’s deferred stock distribution rights provided to current and former Cantor partners on February 14, 2012
FenicsBGC’s group of electronic brands, offering a number of market infrastructure and connectivity services, Fully Electronic marketplaces, and the Fully Electronic brokerage of certain products that also may trade via Voice and Hybrid execution, including market data and related information services, Fully Electronic brokerage, connectivity software, compression and other post-trade services, analytics related to financial instruments and markets, and other financial technology solutions; includes Fenics Growth Platforms and Fenics Markets
Fenics Growth PlatformsConsists of Fenics UST, Fenics GO, Lucera, Fenics FX and other newer standalone platforms
Fenics Integrated
Represents Fenics businesses that utilize sufficient levels of technology such that significant amounts of their transactions can be, or are, executed without broker intervention and have expected pre-tax margins of at least 25%
Fenics Markets
Consists of the Fully Electronic portions of BGC’s brokerage businesses, data, network and post-trade revenues that are unrelated to Fenics Growth Platforms, as well as Fenics Integrated revenues
FICC
Fixed Income Clearing Corporation
FINRAFinancial Industry Regulatory Authority
FMX
BGC’s combined U.S. Treasury and Futures electronic marketplace
Founding PartnersIndividuals who became limited partners of BGC Holdings in the mandatory redemption of interests in Cantor in connection with the 2008 separation and merger of Cantor’s BGC division with eSpeed, Inc. (provided that members of the Cantor group and Howard W. Lutnick (including any entity directly or indirectly controlled by Mr. Lutnick or any trust with respect to which he is a grantor, trustee or beneficiary) are not founding partners) and became limited partners of Newmark Holdings in the Separation
Founding/Working PartnersHolders of FPUs
FPUs
Founding/Working Partners units, in BGC Holdings, prior to the Corporate Conversion, or Newmark Holdings, generally redeemed upon termination of employment
FreedomFreedom International Brokerage Company, a 45%-owned equity method investment of the Company
6

TERMDEFINITION
FTP
File Transfer Protocol
Fully ElectronicBroking transactions intermediated on a solely electronic basis rather than by Voice or Hybrid broking
Futures Exchange Group
A wholly owned subsidiary of the Company made up of the following entities: CFLP CX Futures Exchange Holdings, LLC, CFLP CX Futures Exchange Holdings, L.P., CX Futures Exchange Holdings, LLC, CX Clearinghouse Holdings, LLC, FMX Futures Exchange, L.P. and CX Clearinghouse, L.P.
FXForeign exchange
GDPRGeneral Data Protection Regulation
GFIGFI Group Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, acquired on January 12, 2016
GILTIGlobal Intangible Low-Taxed Income
Ginga PetroleumGinga Petroleum (Singapore) Pte Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, acquired on March 12, 2019
GUIGraphical User Interface
HDUsLPUs with capital accounts, which are liability awards recorded in “Accrued compensation” in the Company’s Consolidated Statements of Financial Condition
Holdings Merger
The merger of Merger Sub 2 with and into Holdings Merger Sub
Holdings Reorganization Merger
The reorganization of BGC Holdings from a Delaware limited partnership into a Delaware limited liability company through a merger with and into Holdings Merger Sub
Holdings Merger Sub
BGC Holdings Merger Sub, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, and successor to BGC Holdings
HybridBroking transactions executed by brokers and involving some element of Voice broking and electronic trading
ICAPICAP plc, a part of TP ICAP group, and a leading markets operator and provider of execution and information services
ICEIntercontinental Exchange
Incentive-Based Compensation
Compensation received by the Company’s executive officers that results from the attainment of a financial reporting measure based on or derived from financial information
Insurance brokerage business
The insurance brokerage business of BGC, including Corant, Ed Broking, Besso, Piiq Risk Partners, Junge, Cooper Gay, Global Underwriting and Epsilon, which business was sold to The Ardonagh Group on November 1, 2021
Insurance Business Disposition
The sale of the Insurance brokerage business for $534.9 million in gross cash proceeds after closing adjustments, subject to limited post-closing adjustments, completed on November 1, 2021
IR ActInflation Reduction Act of 2022
July 2023 distribution shares
On July 2, 2023 Cantor distributed an aggregate of 15.8 million shares of BGC Class B common stock in satisfaction of its remaining deferred share distribution obligations pursuant to the April 2008 distribution rights shares and the February 2012 distribution rights shares
July 2023 Sales Agreement
CEO Program sales agreement, by and between the Company and CF&Co, dated July 3, 2023, pursuant to which the Company can offer and sell up to an aggregate of $300.0 million of shares of BGC Class A common stock
LCHLondon Clearing House
LGDLoss Given Default
7

TERMDEFINITION
LIBORLondon Interbank Offering Rate
Liquidity
A non-GAAP financial measure, comprised of the sum of Cash and cash equivalents, Reverse Repurchase Agreements, and Financial instruments owned, at fair value, less Securities loaned and Repurchase Agreements
LPA Amendment
On March 10, 2023, BGC Holdings entered into the Second Amendment to the BGC Holdings Limited Partnership Agreement which revised certain restrictive covenants pertaining to the “Partner Obligations” and “Competitive Activity”
LPUs
Certain limited partnership units of BGC Holdings prior to the Corporate Conversion, or Newmark Holdings, held by certain employees of BGC and Newmark and other persons who have provided services to BGC or Newmark, which units may include APSIs, APSUs, AREUs, ARPSUs, HDUs, U.K. LPUs, N Units, PLPUs, PPSIs, PPSUs, PSEs, PSIs, PSUs, REUs, and RPUs, along with future types of limited partnership units in Newmark Holdings
LSEG
London Stock Exchange Group
LuceraA wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, also known as “LFI Holdings, LLC” or “LFI,” which is a software defined network offering the trading community direct connectivity
March 2018 Form S-3 Registration Statement
CEO Program shelf Registration Statement on Form S-3 filed on March 9, 2018
March 2018 Sales Agreement
CEO Program sales agreement, by and between BGC Partners and CF&Co, dated March 9, 2018, pursuant to which BGC Partners could offer and sell up to an aggregate of $300.0 million of shares of BGC Class A common stock, which agreement expired in September 2021
March 2021 Form S-3 Registration Statement
CEO Program shelf Registration Statement on Form S-3 filed on March 8, 2021
MarketAxess
MarketAxess Holdings Inc.
Merger Sub 1
BGC Partners II, Inc., a Delaware corporation and wholly owned subsidiary of BGC Group
Merger Sub 2
BGC Partners II, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company and wholly owned subsidiary of BGC Group
MEAMiddle East and Africa region
MiFID IIMarkets in Financial Instruments Directive II, a legislative framework instituted by the EU to regulate financial markets and improve protections for investors by increasing transparency and standardizing regulatory disclosures
Mint BrokersA wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, acquired on August 19, 2010, registered as an FCM with both the CFTC and the NFA
NasdaqNasdaq, Inc., formerly known as NASDAQ OMX Group, Inc.
NDFNon-deliverable forwards
Newmark
Newmark Group, Inc. (Nasdaq symbol: NMRK), a publicly traded and former majority-owned subsidiary of BGC Partners until the Distribution Date, and, where applicable, its consolidated subsidiaries
Newmark Class A common stockNewmark Class A common stock, par value $0.01 per share
Newmark Class B common stockNewmark Class B common stock, par value $0.01 per share
Newmark Group
Newmark, Newmark Holdings, and Newmark OpCo and their respective consolidated subsidiaries, collectively
Newmark HoldingsNewmark Holdings, L.P.
8

TERMDEFINITION
Newmark IPOInitial public offering of 23 million shares of Newmark Class A common stock by Newmark at a price of $14.00 per share in December 2017
Newmark OpCoNewmark Partners, L.P., an operating partnership, which is owned jointly by Newmark and Newmark Holdings and holds the business of Newmark
NEX
NEX Group plc, an entity formed in December 2016, formerly known as ICAP and acquired by CME Group in November 2018
NFANational Futures Association
Non-GAAP
A financial measure that differs from the most directly comparable measure calculated and presented in accordance with U.S. GAAP, such as Adjusted Earnings and Liquidity
N Units
Non-distributing partnership units of BGC Holdings, prior to the Corporate Conversion, or Newmark Holdings, that may not be allocated any item of profit or loss, and may not be made exchangeable into shares of Class A common stock, including NREUs, NPREUs, NLPUs, NPLPUs, NPSUs, and NPPSUs
OCC
Options Clearing Corporation
Open Energy Group
Open Energy Group Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, acquired on November 1, 2023
OTC
Over-the-counter
OTFOrganized Trading Facility, a regulated execution venue category introduced by MiFID II
PD
Probability of default
Period Cost MethodTreatment of taxes associated with the GILTI provision as a current period expense when incurred rather than recording deferred taxes for basis differences
Peer Group
BGC’s peer group for purposes of Item 201(e) of Regulation S-K, which consists of Compagnie Financière Tradition SA and TP ICAP plc
Poten & PartnersPoten & Partners Group, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, acquired on November 15, 2018
Predecessor
Refers to BGC Partners Inc. being the parent company prior to the Corporate Conversion.
Preferred Distribution
Allocation of net profits of BGC Holdings (prior to the Corporate Conversion) or Newmark Holdings to holders of Preferred Units, at a rate of either 0.6875% (i.e., 2.75% per calendar year) or such other amount as set forth in the award documentation
Preferred Return
The lesser of the two-year treasury bond rate or 2.75% annually, as calculated on the determination amount applicable to certain RSU Tax Account awards, which may be adjusted or otherwise determined by management from time to time
Preferred Units
Preferred partnership units of BGC Holdings, prior to the Corporate Conversion, or Newmark Holdings, such as PPSUs, which are settled for cash, rather than made exchangeable into shares of Class A common stock, are only entitled to a Preferred Distribution, and are not included in BGC’s or Newmark’s fully diluted share count
Quantile
Quantile Group Limited
Real Estate L.P.
CF Real Estate Finance Holdings, L.P., a commercial real estate-related financial and investment business controlled and managed by Cantor
Real GDPReal Gross Domestic Product is a macroeconomic measure of the value of economic output adjusted for price changes (i.e., inflation or deflation), which transforms the money-value measure, nominal GDP, into an index for quantity of total output
Record DateClose of business on November 23, 2018, in connection with the Spin-Off
9

TERMDEFINITION
REMIT
Regulation on Wholesale Energy Markets Integrity and Transparency
Repurchase AgreementsSecurities sold under agreements to repurchase that are recorded at contractual amounts, including interest, and accounted for as collateralized financing transactions
Reverse Repurchase Agreements
Agreements to resell securities, with such securities recorded at the contractual amount, including accrued interest, for which the securities will be resold, and accounted for as collateralized financing transactions
Revolving Credit Agreement
BGC Group’s unsecured senior revolving credit agreement with Bank of America, N.A., as administrative agent, and a syndicate of lenders, dated as of November 28, 2018, that originally provided for a maximum revolving loan balance of $350.0 million, bearing interest at either LIBOR or a defined base rate plus additional margin, amended on December 11, 2019 to extend the maturity date to February 26, 2021 and further amended on February 26, 2020 to extend the maturity date to February 26, 2023. On March 10, 2022, the agreement was amended and restated to increase the size of the credit facility to $375.0 million, bearing interest at either SOFR or a defined base rate plus additional margin, and extend the maturity date to March 10, 2025. On October 6, 2023, the Revolving Credit Agreement was amended to exclude the BGC Partners Notes from the restrictive covenant in the Revolving Credit Agreement limiting the indebtedness of subsidiaries, and BGC Group assumed all rights and obligations of BGC Partners under the Revolving Credit Agreement and became the borrower thereunder
ROU
Right-of-use
RSUs
BGC or Newmark restricted stock units, payable in shares of BGC Class A common stock or Newmark Class A common stock, respectively, held by certain employees of BGC or Newmark and other persons who have provided services to BGC or Newmark, or issued in connection with certain acquisitions
RSU Tax Account
RSU Tax Accounts were issued by BGC in connection with the Corporate Conversion in the place of certain non-exchangeable Preferred Units. The RSU Tax Accounts are settled for cash, rather than vesting into shares of Class A common stock, may be entitled to a Preferred Return, and are not included in BGC’s fully diluted share count. The RSU Tax Accounts were issued in connection with RSUs and are to cover any withholding taxes to be paid when the RSUs vest into shares of BGC Class A common stock
Russia’s Invasion of Ukraine
Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, which led to imposed sanctions by the U.S., U.K., EU, and other countries on Russian counterparties
SBSEFSecurity-based Swap Execution Facility
SECU.S. Securities and Exchange Commission
Securities ActSecurities Act of 1933, as amended
SEFSwap Execution Facility
Separation
Principal corporate transactions pursuant to the Separation and Distribution Agreement, by which BGC Partners, BGC Holdings and BGC U.S. OpCo and their respective subsidiaries (other than the Newmark Group) transferred to Newmark, Newmark Holdings and Newmark OpCo and their respective subsidiaries the assets and liabilities of the BGC Entity Group relating to BGC’s real estate services business, and related transactions, including the distribution of Newmark Holdings units to holders of units in BGC Holdings and the assumption and repayment of certain BGC indebtedness by Newmark
Separation and Distribution AgreementSeparation and Distribution Agreement, by and among the BGC Entity Group, the Newmark Group, Cantor and BGC Global OpCo, originally entered into on December 13, 2017, as amended on November 8, 2018 and amended and restated on November 23, 2018
SMCRSenior Managers Certification Regime
SOFRSecured Overnight Financing Rate
SPACSpecial Purpose Acquisition Company
SPAC Investment Banking Activities
Aurel’s investment banking activities with respect to SPACs
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TERMDEFINITION
Spin-OffPro-rata distribution, pursuant to the Separation and Distribution Agreement, by BGC to its stockholders of all the shares of common stock of Newmark owned by BGC Partners immediately prior to the Distribution Date, with shares of Newmark Class A common stock distributed to the holders of shares of BGC Class A common stock (including directors and executive officers of BGC Partners) of record on the Record Date, and shares of Newmark Class B common stock distributed to the holders of shares of BGC Class B common stock (Cantor and CFGM) of record on the Record Date, completed on the Distribution Date
Standing Policy
In December 2010, as amended in 2013 and in 2017 and adopted by BGC Group in connection with the Corporate Conversion, the Audit Committee and the Compensation Committee approved Mr. Lutnick’s right, subject to certain conditions, to accept or waive opportunities offered to other executive officers to monetize or otherwise provide liquidity with respect to some or all of their limited partnership units of BGC Holdings or to accelerate the lapse of or eliminate any restrictions on equity awards
STP
Straight-Through Processing
Successor
Referring to BGC Group, Inc. as the parent company for the period following the Corporate Conversion
Tax ActTax Cuts and Jobs Act enacted on December 22, 2017
TDRsTroubled Debt Restructurings
The Ardonagh Group
The Ardonagh Group Limited; the U.K.’s largest independent insurance broker and purchaser of BGC’s Insurance brokerage business completed on November 1, 2021
Tower BridgeTower Bridge International Services L.P., a subsidiary of the Company, which is 52%-owned by the Company and 48%-owned by Cantor
TP ICAPTP ICAP plc, an entity formed in December 2016, formerly known as Tullett
Tradeweb
Tradeweb Markets, Inc.
Tradition
Compagnie Financière Tradition SA, a Swiss based inter-dealer broker
Trident
Trident Brokerage Service LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, acquired on February 28, 2023
TullettTullett Prebon plc, a part of TP ICAP group and an interdealer broker, primarily operating as an intermediary in the wholesale financial and energy sectors
U.K.United Kingdom
U.K. Partnership
BGC Services (Holdings) LLP, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company
U.S. GAAP or GAAPGenerally Accepted Accounting Principles in the United States of America
UBTUnincorporated Business Tax
VIEVariable Interest Entity
VoiceVoice-only broking transactions executed by brokers over the telephone
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SPECIAL NOTE ON FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. Such statements are based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Any statements contained herein that are not statements of historical fact may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. For example, words such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “estimates,” “predicts,” “possible,” “potential,” “continue,” “strategy,” “believes,” “anticipates,” “plans,” “expects,” “intends,” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. The information included herein is given as of the filing date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K with the SEC, and future results or events could differ significantly from these forward-looking statements. Such statements are based upon current expectations that involve risks and uncertainties. Factors that could cause future results or events to differ from those expressed in these forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, the risks and uncertainties described or referenced in this Form 10-K under the headings “Item 1A—Risk Factors,” “Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Forward-Looking Cautionary Statements” and “Item 7A—Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk.” Except to the extent required by applicable law or regulation, the Company does not undertake to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise.
RISK FACTOR SUMMARY
The following is a summary of material risks that could affect our business, each of which may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. This summary may not contain all of our material risks, and it is qualified in its entirety by the more detailed risk factors set forth in Item 1A “Risk Factors.”
Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects have been and may continue to be affected both positively and negatively by conditions in the global economy and financial markets generally.
Actions taken by governments in response to inflation rates may have a material impact on our business.
We may pursue opportunities including new business initiatives, strategic alliances, acquisitions, mergers, investments, dispositions, joint ventures or other growth opportunities or transformational transactions (including hiring new brokers and salespeople), which could present unforeseen integration obstacles or costs and could dilute our stockholders. We may also face competition in our acquisition strategy or new business plans, and such competition may limit such opportunities.
We are subject to certain risks relating to our indebtedness, including constraints on our ability to raise additional capital, declines in our credit ratings and limitations on our financial flexibility to react to changes in the economy or the financial services industry. We may need to incur additional indebtedness to finance our growth strategy, including in connection with the re-positioning of aspects of our business to adapt to changes in market conditions in the financial services industry.
We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights or may be prevented from using intellectual property necessary for our business.
Malicious cyber-attacks and other adverse events affecting our operational systems or infrastructure, or those of third parties, could disrupt our business, result in the disclosure of confidential information, damage our reputation and cause losses or regulatory penalties.
We may use artificial intelligence in our business, and challenges with properly managing its use could result in competitive harm, regulatory action, legal liability and brand or reputational harm.
The loss of one or more of our key executives, the development of future talent and the ability of certain key employees to devote adequate time and attention to us are a key part of the success of our businesses, and failure to continue to employ and have the benefit of these executives, may adversely affect our businesses and prospects.
If we fail to implement and maintain an effective internal control environment, our operations, reputation, and stock price could suffer, we may need to restate our financial statements, and we may be delayed or prevented from accessing the capital markets.
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The financial services industry in general faces potential regulatory, litigation and/or criminal risks that may result in damages or fines or other penalties as well as costs, and we may face damage to our professional reputation and legal liability if our products and services are not regarded as satisfactory, our employees do not adhere to all applicable legal and professional standards, or for other reasons, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our businesses, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Because competition for the services of brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel, in the financial services industry is intense, it could affect our ability to attract and retain a sufficient number of highly skilled brokers or other professional services personnel, in turn adversely impacting our revenues, resulting in a material adverse effect on our businesses, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Consolidation and concentration of market share in the banking, brokerage, exchange and financial services industries could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects because we may not be able to compete successfully.
We are subject to risks inherent in doing business in international financial markets, international expansion and international operations, including regulatory risks, political risks, and foreign currency risks.
Our activities are subject to credit and performance risks, which could result in us incurring significant losses that could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
If we were deemed an “investment company” under the Investment Company Act, the Investment Company Act’s restrictions could make it impractical for us to continue our business.
We are a holding company with dual class common stock. Holders of our Class A common stock are subject to certain risks resulting from our structure, including our dependence upon distributions from the BGC OpCos and the concentration of our voting control among the holders of our Class B common stock, which may materially adversely affect the market price of our Class A common stock.
We are controlled by Cantor and Mr. Lutnick, who have potential conflicts of interest with us and may exercise their control in a way that favors their interests to our detriment.
Purchasers, as well as existing stockholders, may experience significant dilution as a result of offerings of shares of our Class A common stock. Our management will have broad discretion as to the timing and amount of sales of our Class A common stock, as well as the application of the net proceeds of any such sales.
Ongoing scrutiny and changing expectations from stockholders with respect to the Company’s corporate responsibility or ESG practices may result in additional costs or risks.
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PART I
ITEM 1.    BUSINESS
Throughout this document, the terms the “Company,” “BGC,” “we,” “our,” and “us,” refer to: (i) following the closing of the Corporate Conversion, effective at 12:02 am Eastern Time on July 1, 2023, BGC Group, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, including BGC Partners, Inc.; and (ii) prior to the closing of the Corporate Conversion, BGC Partners, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries.
Our Business
We are a leading global brokerage and financial technology company servicing the global financial, energy and commodities markets. BGC, through its affiliates, specializes in the trade execution of a broad range of products, including fixed income securities such as government bonds, corporate bonds, and other debt instruments, as well as related interest rate derivatives and credit derivatives. Additionally, we provide brokerage services across FX, Equities, Energy and Commodities, Shipping, and Futures and Options. Our business also provides connectivity and network solutions, clearing, market data and network connectivity products, trade compression and other post-trade services, market data and related information services and other back-office services to a broad assortment of financial and non-financial institutions.
Our integrated platform is designed to provide flexibility to customers with regard to price discovery, trade execution and transaction processing, as well as accessing liquidity through our platforms, for transactions executed either OTC or through an exchange. Through our Fenics® group of electronic brands, we offer several trade execution, market infrastructure and connectivity services, as well as post-trade services. Fenics® brands also operate under the names Fenics®, FMX™, FMX Futures Exchange™, Fenics Markets Xchange™, Fenics Digital™, Fenics UST™, Fenics FX™, Fenics Repo™, Fenics Direct™, Fenics MID™, Fenics Market Data™, Fenics GO™, Fenics PortfolioMatch™, BGC®, BGC Trader™, kACE2®, and Lucera®.
Our customers include many of the world’s largest banks, broker-dealers, investment banks, trading firms, hedge funds, governments, corporations, and investment firms. BGC is a global operation with offices across all major geographies, including New York and London, as well as in Bahrain, Beijing, Bogota, Brisbane, Cape Town, Chicago, Copenhagen, Dubai, Dublin, Frankfurt, Geneva, Hong Kong, Houston, Johannesburg, Madrid, Manila, Melbourne, Mexico City, Miami, Milan, Monaco, Nyon, Paris, Perth, Rio de Janeiro, Santiago, São Paulo, Seoul, Shanghai, Singapore, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Tokyo, Toronto, and Zurich.
As of December 31, 2023, we had 2,104 brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel across our businesses.
BGC, BGC Group, BGC Partners, BGC Trader, GFI, GFI Ginga, CreditMatch, Fenics, Fenics.com, FMX, Sunrise Brokers, Poten & Partners, RP Martin, kACE2, Capitalab, Swaptioniser, CBID, Caventor, LumeMarkets, Lucera, and Aurel are trademarks/service marks, and/or registered trademarks/service marks of BGC Group and/or its affiliates.
Our History
Our business originated from Cantor, one of the oldest and most established inter-dealer and wholesale brokerage franchises in the financial intermediary industry. Cantor started our wholesale intermediary brokerage operations in 1972. In 1996, Cantor launched its eSpeed system, which revolutionized the way government bonds are traded in the inter-dealer market by providing a Fully Electronic trading marketplace. eSpeed completed an initial public offering and began trading on Nasdaq in 1999.
Cantor subsequently continued to operate its inter-dealer Voice and Hybrid brokerage businesses separately from eSpeed.
Prior to the events of September 11, 2001, our financial brokerage business was widely recognized as one of the leading full-service wholesale financial brokers in the world, with a rich history of developing innovative technological and financial solutions.
After September 11, 2001, and the loss of the majority of our U.S. -based employees, our Voice financial brokerage business operated primarily in Europe.
In August 2004, Cantor announced the reorganization and separation of its inter-dealer Voice and Hybrid brokerage businesses into a subsidiary called “BGC,” in honor of B. Gerald Cantor, the pioneer in screen brokerage services and fixed income market data products.
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In April 2008, BGC and certain other Cantor assets merged with and into eSpeed, and the combined company began operating under the name “BGC Partners, Inc.” In June 2013, we sold certain assets relating to our U.S. Treasury benchmark business and the name “eSpeed” to Nasdaq. In 2011, we also acquired and built up a commercial real estate services business called “Newmark,” which we spun-off to BGC’s stockholders in November 2018. In addition, we acquired and built-up an insurance brokerage business, which we sold in November 2021. We also acquired the Futures Exchange Group from Cantor in July 2021, which represents our futures exchange and related clearinghouse.
We have substantially rebuilt our U.S. presence and have continued to expand our global footprint through the acquisition and integration of established brokerage companies and the hiring of experienced brokers. Through these actions, we have been able to expand our presence in key markets and position our business for sustained growth. Since 2015, our acquisitions have included GFI, Sunrise Brokers, Poten & Partners, Ginga Petroleum, the Futures Exchange Group, Trident, Open Energy Group and ContiCap SA.
Since the founding of eSpeed, we have continued to pioneer advances in electronic trading across the wholesale capital markets. Fenics, BGC’s higher-margin technology-driven business, has grown significantly, supported by our investment in new trading technologies and platforms, as well as from trends of proliferating electronic execution across the capital markets and the demand for data services.
Fenics is the foundation for our Fully Electronic and associated Hybrid transactions across all asset classes. For the purposes of this document and subsequent SEC filings, all of our Fully Electronic businesses may be collectively referred to as “Fenics.” Fenics’ offerings include Fully Electronic financial brokerage products and services, as well as offerings in data, network, and post-trade services across the Company.
We currently operate electronic marketplaces in multiple financial markets through Fenics and multi-asset Hybrid platforms for Voice and Fully Electronic execution. We also operate a number of newer standalone, Fully Electronic platforms such as Fenics UST, Fenics FX, Fenics GO, and PortfolioMatch, among others. Going forward, we expect Fenics to become an even more valuable part of BGC as it continues to grow.
On November 3, 2021, we announced FMX, which will combine Fenics’ U.S. Treasury business with a state-of-the-art U.S. Rates futures platform. On January 22, 2024, FMX received CFTC approval to operate an exchange for U.S. Treasury and SOFR futures. We intend to launch the FMX Futures Exchange in the summer of 2024 and we plan to discuss our strategic partners and further details on, or before, our first quarter 2024 earnings call.
Corporate Conversion
On July 1, 2023, BGC Partners completed its conversion to a Full C-Corporation in order to reorganize and simplify its organizational structure. As a result of the Corporate Conversion, BGC Group became the public holding company for, and successor to, BGC Partners, and its Class A common stock began trading on Nasdaq under the ticker symbol “BGC” in place of BGC Partners’ Class A common stock. Upon completion of the Corporate Conversion, the former stockholders of BGC Partners and the former limited partners of BGC Holdings now participate in the economics of the BGC businesses through BGC Group. The Corporate Conversion was intended to improve transparency and reduce operational complexity across our business.
As a result of the Corporate Conversion, BGC Partners became a wholly owned subsidiary of BGC Group and BGC Holdings reorganized from a Delaware limited partnership into a Delaware limited liability company through a merger with and into Holdings Merger Sub, with Holdings Merger Sub continuing as a wholly owned subsidiary of BGC Group. Each outstanding share of BGC Partners Class A common stock and BGC Partners Class B common stock was converted into one share of BGC Group Class A common stock and BGC Group Class B common stock, respectively. Non-exchangeable limited partnership units of BGC Holdings were converted into equity awards denominated in cash, restricted stock and/or RSUs of BGC Group. Exchangeable limited partnership units of BGC Holdings were exchanged for shares of BGC Partners Class A common stock prior to the Corporate Conversion and were converted into shares of BGC Group Class A common stock at the closing of the Corporate Conversion. 64.0 million Cantor units were converted into shares of BGC Group Class B common stock, subject to the terms and conditions of the Corporate Conversion Agreement, provided that a portion of the 64.0 million shares of BGC Group Class B common stock issued to Cantor will exchange into BGC Group Class A common stock in the event that BGC Group does not issue at least $75,000,000 in shares of BGC Group Class A common stock or BGC Group Class B common stock in connection with certain acquisition transactions prior to the seventh anniversary of the Corporate Conversion. BGC Group assumed all BGC Partners RSUs, RSU Tax Accounts or restricted stock awards outstanding as of June 30, 2023.
In connection with the Corporate Conversion, on July 1, 2023, the BGC Holdings Limited Partnership Agreement was terminated. There were no limited partnership units of BGC Holdings remaining after the Corporate Conversion was completed.
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Please refer to “Our Organizational Structure” for diagrams of the Company’s organizational structure before and after the Corporate Conversion, as well as “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operation—Overview and Business Overview—Corporate Conversion” for more information regarding the Corporate Conversion.
Overview of Our Products and Services
Financial Brokerage
While Voice and Hybrid brokerage revenues still represent the majority of BGC’s overall revenues, we continue to convert our Voice and Hybrid brokerage business to our higher margin, technology-driven Fenics business, which has grown to represent 25% of total BGC revenues during the fourth quarter and the year ended 2023. Over the past several years, we have invested in, and developed, new state-of-the-art trading platforms, including Fenics UST, Fenics FX, Fenics GO, and PortfolioMatch, across Rates, FX, Equities, and Credit, respectively. We have also invested in, and deployed, trading technology solutions across our entire business, including our Voice and Hybrid brokerage desks, with an aim to increase our average broker productivity and to accelerate trends of electronic conversion. Underpinning our efforts to automate and electronify our overall brokerage business are macro trends across the capital markets, where the adoption of electronic trading has accelerated in recent years.
We categorize our Fenics business as Fenics Markets and Fenics Growth Platforms as follows:
•    Fenics Markets includes the Fully Electronic portion of BGC’s brokerage business, data, network and post-trade revenues that are unrelated to Fenics Growth Platforms, as well as Fenics Integrated revenues. Fenics Integrated seamlessly integrates hybrid liquidity with customer electronic orders either by GUI and/or API. Desks are categorized as “Fenics Integrated” if they utilize sufficient levels of technology such that significant amounts of their transactions can be or are executed without broker intervention and have expected pre-tax margins of at least 25%.
•    Fenics Growth Platforms includes Fenics UST, Fenics GO, Lucera, Fenics FX, PortfolioMatch and our other newer standalone platforms. Revenues generated from data, network and post-trade attributable to Fenics Growth Platforms are included within their related businesses.
We have leveraged our platforms to provide real-time product and price discovery information and straight-through processing to our customers for an increasing number of products. Our end-to-end solution includes real-time and auction-based transaction processing, credit and risk management tools, and back-end processing and billing systems. Customers can access our trading application through our privately managed global high speed data network, over the Internet, or through third-party communication networks.
FMX will provide fully electronic trading in cash treasuries, foreign exchange and interest rate futures by combining our Fenics’ U.S. Treasury business with a state-of-the-art U.S. Rates futures platform. On January 22, 2024, FMX received CFTC approval to operate an exchange for U.S. Treasury and SOFR futures. We intend to launch the FMX Futures Exchange in the summer of 2024 and we plan to discuss our strategic partners and further details on, or before, our first quarter 2024 earnings call. For more information about FMX, see “Item 7—Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Overview and Business Environment.”
Energy and Commodities Brokerage
Our Energy and Commodities business provides a comprehensive suite of transaction services across environmental and emissions products, where we are a market leader, as well as weather derivatives, liquefied natural gas and natural gas, oil, power, base metals, dry bulk products such as coal and iron ore, and soft and agricultural products.
Over the past few years, we have expanded our Energy and Commodities brokerage business through strategic acquisitions and hires and organic growth, with a key focus on clean energy and transition fuels. These acquisitions include Ginga Petroleum, which we acquired in March 2019. Ginga Petroleum complemented our existing energy brokerage businesses within BGC, GFI, and Poten & Partners. Ginga Petroleum provides a comprehensive range of brokerage services for physical and derivative energy products including naphtha, liquefied petroleum gas, fuel oil, biofuels, middle distillates, petrochemicals and gasoline. In February 2023, we acquired Trident, which specializes in environmental products and OTC and exchange traded energy products. Trident bolsters our leading environmental brokerage business and complements our existing energy brokerage offerings.
In 2023, we announced the launch of our Weather Derivatives business, expanding BGC’s brokerage business into the weather and climate space. The Weather Derivatives business helps market participants analyze climate-related risks and mitigate their financial exposure. We are providing liquidity to these increasingly important markets as the role of weather and
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climate change impacts the way risk is managed. The launch of this business highlights BGC’s commitment to expand and explore new opportunities across the global energy and commodities space.
We also offer ship brokerage services through Poten & Partners, which we acquired in November 2018. Poten & Partners is a leading ship brokerage, consulting and business intelligence firm specializing in LNG, tanker and LPG markets. Founded over 80 years ago and with 170 employees worldwide, Poten & Partners provides its clients with valuable insight into the international oil, gas and shipping markets.
Brokerage Categories
The following table identifies some of the key products that we broker, inclusive of those discussed above:
Category
Product Type
Rates
Interest Rate Swaps, Interest Rate Options, Listed Rates Products, U.S. Treasuries, European Government Bonds, Other Global Government Bonds, Repurchase Agreements, Money Markets, Agency Fixed Income
Credit
Corporate Bonds, High Yield Bonds, Emerging Market Bonds, Index CDS, Single Name CDS, Exotic Credit Derivatives, Asset-Backed Securities, Loans, Structured Products
Foreign Exchange
Foreign Exchange Options, Spot FX, FX Forward, Non-Deliverable Forwards, Precious Metals
Energy and Commodities
Environmental/Emission Products, Weather Derivatives, Energy & Petrochemical Consulting, Ship Brokerage, Power, Liquefied Natural Gas, Natural Gas, Base Metals, Dry Bulk (Coal & Iron Ore), Oil, Soft & Agricultural Products
Equities
OTC Equity Derivatives, Listed Equity Futures & Options, Delta One Product, Convertibles, Cash Equities
Certain trades in these key product types settle for clearing purposes with CF&Co, one of our affiliates. CF&Co is a member of FINRA and the FICC, a subsidiary of the DTCC. In addition, certain affiliated entities are subject to regulation by the CFTC, including CF&Co and BGC Financial. For certain products, we, CF&Co, BGC Financial and other affiliates act in a matched principal or principal capacity in markets by posting and/or acting upon quotes for our account. Such activity is intended, among other things, to assist us, CF&Co and other affiliates in managing proprietary positions (including, but not limited to, those established as a result of combination of trades and errors), facilitating transactions, framing markets, adding liquidity, increasing commissions and attracting order flow.
Technology Offerings
Our data, network and post-trade offerings provide a range of trade lifecycle services which include market data and analytics services, infrastructure and connectivity solutions, and post-trade services, such as trade compression, risk mitigation, matching, initial margin optimization, and other data, network and post-trade optimization services. These businesses have highly recurring and compounding revenue bases, which are reported within our Fenics business. We have invested in the growth of our Fenics businesses, which continue to scale and represent record levels of BGC’s overall revenue.
Fenics Market Data™ is a supplier of real-time, tradable, indicative, end-of-day and historical market data. Our market data product suite includes fixed income, interest rate derivatives, credit derivatives, foreign exchange and money markets, energy and commodities, equity derivatives and regulatory solution market data products and services. The data is sourced from the Voice, Hybrid and Fully Electronic brokerage operations and made available to financial professionals, research analysts, compliance and surveillance departments, and other market participants via direct data feeds and BGC-hosted FTP environments, as well as via information platforms such as Bloomberg, LSEG Data & Analytics, ICE Data Services and other select specialist vendors.
Through our network business, we provide customized screen-based market solutions to both related and unrelated parties. Our clients are able to develop a marketplace, trade with their customers and access our network and our intellectual property. We can add advanced functionality to enable our customers to distribute branded products to their customers through online offerings and auctions, including private and reverse auctions, via our trading platform and global network.
As part of our network business, our Lucera® brand delivers high-performance technology solutions designed to be secure and scalable and to power demanding financial applications across several offerings: LumeFX® (distributed FX
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platform with managed infrastructure and software stack), LumeMarkets™ (multi-asset class aggregation platform), Connect™ (global SDN for rapid provisioning of connectivity to counter-parties), and Compute™ (on-demand, co-located compute services in key financial data centers).
Through kACE2, our analytics brand, we offer derivative price discovery, pricing analysis, risk management and trading software used by approximately 280 client sites in over 30 countries. Our clients include mid-tier banks, financial institutions and corporate clients. Our Gateway module links our client base with their counterparties, trading venues and regulators, and provides automated order flow, straight through processing, data distribution and regulatory reporting.
Our post-trade services include post-trade risk mitigation services provided using our Capitalab® brand. Capitalab provides compression, matching and optimization services that are designed to bring greater capital and operational efficiency to the global derivatives market. Capitalab assists clients in managing the growing cost of holding derivatives, while helping them to meet their regulatory mandates and promote sustainable growth and lower systemic risk and to improve resiliency in the industry.
Industry Recognition
Our businesses have consistently won global industry awards and accolades in recognition of their performance and achievements. Recent examples include:
Fenics Market Data named Americas Data and Analytics Vendor of the Year at the GlobalCapital Americas Derivatives Awards 2023
Fenics Market Data named Best Market Data Provider at FX Markets e-FX Awards 2023
Fenics Market Data named Best Market Data Provider at WatersTechnology Inside Market Data & Inside Reference Data Awards 2023
Fenics Market Data named Best Provider of Broker Market Data at TradingTech Insight Awards – USA (A-Team) 2023 and TradingTech Insight Awards – Europe (A-Team) 2023
Capitalab named Americas Optimisation Service of the Year at the GlobalCapital Americas Derivatives Awards 2023
Customers and Clients
We primarily serve the wholesale financial and energy and commodity markets, with clients including many of the world’s largest banks, brokerage houses, investment firms, hedge funds, and investment banks. Customers using our products and services also include professional trading firms, futures commission merchants, and other professional market participants and financial institutions. Our market data products and services are available through many platforms and are available to a wide variety of capital market participants, including banks, investment banks, brokerage firms, asset managers, hedge funds, investment analysts, compliance and surveillance professionals and financial advisors. We also license our intellectual property portfolio and offerings to various financial markets participants. For the year ended December 31, 2023, our top ten customers, collectively, accounted for approximately 30.0% of our total revenue on a consolidated basis, and our largest customer accounted for approximately 4.8% of our total revenue on a consolidated basis.
Sales and Marketing
Our brokers and salespeople are our primary marketing and sales resources, and utilize a combination of sales, marketing and co-marketing/co-branding campaigns. Our sales and marketing programs are aimed at enhancing the ability of our brokers to cross-sell effectively in addition to informing our customers about our product and service offerings. We leverage our customer relationships through a variety of direct marketing and sales initiatives and build and enhance our brand image through marketing and communications campaigns targeted at a diverse audience, including traders, potential partners and the investor and media communities.
Our brokerage product team is composed of product managers who are each responsible for a specific part of our brokerage business. The product managers seek to ensure that our brokers, across all regions, have access to technical expertise, support and multiple execution methods in order to grow and market their business. This approach of combining marketing with our product and service strategy has enabled us to turn innovative ideas into both Fully Electronic and Hybrid deliverable solutions.
Our team of business development professionals is responsible for growing our global footprint through raising awareness of our products and services. The business development team markets our products and services to new and existing
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customers. As part of this process, they analyze existing levels of business with these entities in order to identify potential areas of growth and also to cross-sell our multiple offerings.
Our Trading Technology
Pre-Trade Technology. Our financial brokers use a suite of pricing and analytical tools that have been developed both in-house and in cooperation with specialist software suppliers. The pre-trade software suite combines proprietary market data, pricing and calculation libraries, together with those outsourced from external providers. The tools in turn publish to a normalized, global market data distribution platform, allowing prices and rates to be distributed to our proprietary network, data vendor pages, secure websites and trading applications as indicative pricing.
Inter-Dealer and Wholesale Trading Technology. We utilize sophisticated proprietary electronic trading platforms to provide execution and market data services to our customers. The services are available through our proprietary API, FIX and a multi-asset proprietary trading platforms, operating under brands including BGC Trader™, CreditMatch®, Fenics®, FMX™ GFI ForexMatch®, BGCForex™, BGCCredit™, BGCRates™, FenicsFX™, FenicsUST™, FenicsDirect™, Fenics GO™, MidFX, GBX™, and Fenics Invitations™. These platforms presently support a wide and constantly expanding range of products and services, which include U.S. Treasuries and other government bonds, Repos, OTC interest rate derivatives in multiple currencies, spot FX, NDFs, FX options, corporate bonds, credit derivatives and other products. Every product on the platforms is supported in either view-only, Hybrid/managed or Fully Electronic mode, and can be transitioned from one mode to the next in response to market demands. The flexible BGC technology stack is designed to support feature-rich workflows required by the Hybrid mode as well as delivering high throughput and low transaction latency required by the Fully Electronic mode. Trades executed by our customers in any mode are, when applicable, eligible for immediate electronic confirmation through direct STP links as well as STP hubs. The BGC trading platform services are operated out of several globally distributed data centers and delivered to customers over BGC’s global private network, third-party connectivity providers as well as the Internet. BGC’s proprietary graphical user interfaces and the API/FIX connectivity are deployed at hundreds of major banks and institutions and service thousands of users.
Post-Trade Straight Through Processing Technology. Our platform automates transaction processing, confirmation and other functions, substantially improving and reducing the cost of many of our customers’ back offices and enabling STP. In addition to our own system, confirmation and trade processing is also available through third-party hubs, including MarkitWIRE, ICElink, Reuters RTNS, and STP in FIX for various banks.
We have electronic connections to most mainstream clearinghouses, including DTCC, CLS Group, Euroclear, Clearstream, Monte Titoli, LCH.Clearnet, Eurex Clearing, CME Clearing and the OCC. As more products become centrally cleared, and as our customers request that we use a particular venue, we expect to expand the number of clearinghouses to which we connect in the future.
Systems Architecture. Our systems consist of layered components, which provide matching, credit management, market data distribution, position reporting, customer display and customer integration. The private network currently operates from six concurrent core data centers (three of which are in the U.K., and one each in Trumbull, Connecticut, Weehawken, New Jersey and Secaucus, New Jersey) and many hub cities throughout the world acting as distribution points for all private network customers. The redundant structure of our system provides multiple backup paths and re-routing of data transmission in the event of failure.
In addition to our own network system, we also receive and distribute secure trading information from customers using the services of multiple, major Internet service providers throughout the world. These connections enable us to offer our products and services via the Internet to our global customers.
Software Development
We devote substantial efforts to the development and improvement of our Hybrid and Fully Electronic marketplaces and licensed software products and services. We work with our customers to identify their specific requirements and make modifications to our software, network distribution systems and technologies that are responsive to those needs. Our efforts focus on internal development, strategic partnering, acquisitions and licensing.
Our Intellectual Property
We regard our technology and intellectual property rights, including our brands, as a critical part of our business. We hold various trademarks, trade dress and trade names and rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark, service mark and trade secret laws, as well as contractual restrictions, to establish and protect our intellectual property rights. We own
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numerous domain names and have registered numerous trademarks and/or service marks in the United States and foreign countries. Our trademark registrations must be renewed periodically, and, in most jurisdictions, every 10 years.
We have adopted a comprehensive intellectual property program to protect our proprietary technology and innovations. We currently have licenses covering various patents from related parties. We also have agreements to license technology that may be covered by several pending and/or issued U.S. patent applications relating to various aspects of our electronic trading systems, including both functional and design aspects. We have filed a number of patent applications to further protect our proprietary technology and innovations and have received patents for some of those applications. We will continue to file additional patent applications on new inventions, as appropriate, demonstrating our commitment to technology and innovation.
Our patent portfolio continues to grow, and we continue to look for opportunities to license and/or otherwise monetize the patents in our portfolio.
Competition
We encounter competition in all aspects of our business. Our existing and potential competitors include other wholesale financial brokerage and inter-dealer brokerage firms, multi-dealer trading companies, financial technology companies, market data and information vendors, securities and futures exchanges, electronic communications networks, crossing systems, software companies, financial trading consortia, shipping brokers, business-to-business marketplace infrastructure companies, as well as niche market energy and other Internet-based commodity trading systems. We compete primarily with other inter-dealer or wholesale financial brokers for market share, brokers, salespeople and suitable acquisition candidates.
Inter-Dealer and Wholesale Financial Brokers
We primarily compete with two publicly traded, diversified inter-dealer and wholesale financial brokers, TP ICAP and Tradition. Other competitors include Dealerweb, an inter-dealer and wholesale financial brokerage business within Tradeweb, XP Inc.’s fixed income and FX inter-dealer brokerage business, and a number of private firms that tend to specialize in specific product areas or geographies, such as Marex Spectron Group Limited, which focuses on energy and commodities.
Demand for wholesale brokerage services is directly affected by the overall level of economic activity, international and domestic economic and political conditions, including central bank policies, broad trends in business and finance, including employment levels, the level and volatility of interest rates, changes in and uncertainty regarding tax laws and substantial fluctuations in the volume and price levels of securities transactions. Other significant factors affecting competition in the brokerage industry are the quality and ability of professional personnel, the depth and pricing efficiency of the markets in which the brokers transact, the strength of the technology used to service and execute on those markets and the relative prices of products and services offered by the brokers and by competing markets and trading processes.
Market Data and Information
The majority of our large inter-dealer and wholesale financial broker competitors also sell proprietary market data and information, which competes with our market data offerings. In addition to direct sales, we resell market data through large market data and information providers. These companies have established significant presences on the vast majority of trading desks across our industry. Some of these market data and information providers, such as Bloomberg L.P. and LSEG Data & Analytics, include in their product mix electronic trading and execution of both OTC and listed products in addition to their traditional market data offerings.
Growth in new trading venues has led to fragmentation of liquidity across the financial markets. Our network solutions business helps aggregate liquidity and connect counterparties across these marketplaces. We compete with other market infrastructure and connectivity providers, such as Pico, ION Group and Bloomberg, which recently acquired Broadway Technology in this space.
Our post-trade services that offer derivative compression, matching and optimization services operate in an industry which has benefited from increased regulatory requirements. Competition in this space includes OSSTRA, a joint venture between CME Group Inc. and IHS Markit Ltd, Parameta Solutions, TP ICAP’s data and analytics business, and Quantile owned by LSEG and Capitolis.

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Exchanges and Other Trading Platforms
Although our business will often use exchanges to execute transactions brokered in both listed and OTC markets, we believe that exchanges have sought and will seek to migrate products traditionally traded in OTC markets by inter-dealer and wholesale financial brokers to exchanges. However, we believe that when a product goes from OTC to exchange-traded, the underlying or related OTC market often continues to experience growth in line with the growth of the exchange-traded contract. In addition, ICE operates both regulated exchanges and OTC execution services, and in the latter, it competes directly with inter-dealer and wholesale financial brokers in energy, commodities, and credit products. ICE entered these OTC markets primarily by acquiring independent OTC brokers. We also compete with CME across U.S. interest rates products, including our expected launch of an exchange for U.S. Rates futures in 2024, as well as in foreign exchange products. We believe that it is likely ICE, CME, or other exchange operators may seek to compete with us in the future by acquiring other such brokers, by creating listed products designed to mimic OTC products, or through other means.
In addition to exchanges, other electronic trading platforms which primarily operate in the dealer-to-client markets, including those run by MarketAxess and Tradeweb, now compete with us in the inter-dealer markets. At the same time, we have begun to offer an increasing number of our products and services to the customers of firms like MarketAxess and Tradeweb.
Banks and Broker-Dealers
Banks and broker-dealers have in the past created and/or funded consortia to compete with exchanges and inter-dealer brokers. For example, CME’s wholesale businesses for fully electronic trading of U.S. Treasuries and spot foreign exchange both began as dealer-owned consortia before being acquired by ICAP plc. An example of a current and similar consortium is Tradeweb. Several large banks continue to hold public equity stakes in Tradeweb. LSEG Data & Analytics, is Tradeweb’s single largest shareholder. Although Tradeweb operates primarily as a dealer to customer platform, some of its offerings include a voice and electronic inter-dealer platform. Tradeweb’s management has previously said that it would like to further expand into other inter-dealer markets, and in June 2021, it acquired Nasdaq’s U.S. fixed income electronic trading platform, formerly known as eSpeed. In 2013, BGC sold the eSpeed platform to Nasdaq, and subsequently launched a competing platform, Fenics UST.
In addition, certain investment management firms that traditionally deal with banks and broker-dealers have expressed a desire to have direct access to certain parts of the wholesale financial markets via firms such as ours. We believe that over time, interdealer-brokers will therefore gain a growing percentage of the sales and trading market currently dominated by banks and broker-dealers. Since their collective revenues are many times those of the global inter-dealer market, we believe that gaining even a small share of banks and broker-dealers’ revenues could lead to a meaningful increase in our revenues. Additionally, wholesale financial brokers have aimed to grow their agency brokerage businesses, which typically serve a broader client set, including banks, broker-dealers, and institutional clients, such as TP ICAP’s acquisition of Liquidnet in March 2021.
Seasonality
Traditionally, the financial markets around the world generally experience lower volume during the late summer and toward the end of the year due to a slowdown in the business environment around holiday seasons. Therefore, our revenues tend to be strongest in the first quarter and lowest in the second half of the year. For the year 2023, we earned approximately 26.4% of our revenues in the first quarter, while in 2022 we earned 28.2% of our revenues in the first quarter.
Regulation
U.S. Regulation
The financial services industry in the United States is subject to extensive regulation under both federal and state laws. As registered broker-dealers, introducing brokers and FCMs, and other types of regulated entities as described below, certain of our subsidiaries are subject to laws and regulations which cover all aspects of financial services, including sales methods, trade practices, use and safekeeping of customers’ funds and securities, minimum capital requirements, recordkeeping, business practices, securities lending and financing of securities purchases and the conduct of associated persons. We and our subsidiaries also are subject to the various anti-fraud provisions of the Securities Act, the Exchange Act, the Commodity Exchange Act, certain state securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder. We also may be subject to vicarious and controlling person liability for the activities of our subsidiaries and our officers, employees and affiliated persons.
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The SEC is the federal agency primarily responsible for the administration of federal securities laws, including adopting rules and regulations applicable to broker-dealers (other than government securities broker-dealers) and enforcing both its rules regarding broker-dealers and the Treasury’s rules regarding government securities broker-dealers. In addition, we operate a number of platforms that are governed pursuant to SEC Regulation ATS. Broker-dealers are also subject to regulation by state securities administrators in those states in which they conduct business or have registered to do business. In addition, Treasury rules relating to trading government securities apply to such activities when engaged in by broker-dealers. The CFTC is the federal agency primarily responsible for the administration of federal commodities future laws and other acts, including the adoption of rules applicable to FCMs, DCMs and SEFs such as BGC Derivative Markets and GFI Swaps Exchange LLC.
Much of the regulation of broker-dealers’ operations in the United States has been delegated to self-regulatory organizations. These self-regulatory organizations adopt rules (which are subject to approval by the SEC) that govern the operations of broker-dealers and government securities broker-dealers and conduct periodic inspections and examinations of their operations. In the case of our U.S. broker-dealer subsidiaries, the principal self-regulatory organization is FINRA. FINRA was formed from the consolidation of the NASD’s member regulation operations and the regulatory arm of the NYSE Group to act as the self-regulatory organization for all broker-dealers doing business within the United States. Accordingly, our U.S. broker-dealer subsidiaries are subject to both scheduled and unscheduled examinations by the SEC and FINRA. In our futures-related activities, our subsidiaries are also subject to the rules of the CFTC, futures exchanges of which they are members and the NFA, a futures self-regulatory organization.
The changing regulatory environment, new laws that may be passed by Congress, and rules that may be promulgated by the SEC, the Treasury, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, the CFTC, the NFA, FINRA and other self-regulatory organizations, or changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws and rules, if adopted, may directly affect our operations and profitability and those of our competitors and customers and of the securities markets in which we participate in a way that could adversely affect our business.
The SEC, self-regulatory organizations and state securities administrators conduct informal and formal investigations of possible improprieties or illegal action by broker-dealers and their “associated persons,” which could be followed by the institution of administrative, civil and/or criminal proceedings against broker-dealers and/or “associated persons.” Among the sanctions that may result if administrative, civil or criminal proceedings were ever instituted against us or our “associated persons” are injunctions, censure, fines, penalties, the issuance of cease-and-desist orders or suspension or expulsion from the industry and, in rare instances, even imprisonment. The principal purpose of regulating and disciplining broker-dealers is to protect customers and the securities markets, rather than to protect broker-dealers or their creditors or equity holders. From time to time, our “associated persons” have been and are subject to routine investigations, none of which to date have had a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or prospects.
Regulators and legislators in the U.S. and EU continue to craft new laws and regulations for the global OTC derivatives markets. The Dodd-Frank Act mandates or encourages several reforms regarding derivatives, including new regulations for swaps markets creating impartiality considerations, additional pre- and post-trade transparency requirements, and heightened collateral or capital standards, as well as recommendations for the obligatory use of central clearing for most standardized derivatives. The law also requires that standardized OTC derivatives be traded in an open and non-exclusionary manner on a DCM or a SEF.
BGC Derivative Markets and GFI Swaps Exchange, our subsidiaries, operate as SEFs. Mandatory Dodd-Frank Act compliant execution on SEFs by eligible U.S. persons for “made available to trade” products and a wide range of other rules relating to the execution and clearing of derivative products have been implemented. We also own ELX, which became a dormant contract market on July 1, 2017 and in July 2021, we completed the purchase of the CX Futures Exchange (now FMX Futures Exchange) from Cantor, which represents our futures exchange and related clearinghouse. These rules require authorized execution facilities to maintain robust front-end and back-office IT capabilities and to make large and ongoing technology investments. These execution facilities may be supported by a variety of voice and auction-based execution methodologies, and our Hybrid and Fully Electronic trading capability have performed strongly in this regulatory environment.
On June 25, 2020, the CFTC approved a final rule prohibiting post-trade name give-up for swaps executed, prearranged or prenegotiated anonymously on or pursuant to the rules of a SEF and intended to be cleared. The rule provides exemptions for package transactions that include a component transaction that is not a swap that is intended to be cleared. The rule went into effect on November 1, 2020 for swaps subject to the trade execution requirement under the Commodity Exchange Act Section 2(h)(8) and July 5, 2021 for swaps not subject to the trade execution requirement, but intended to be cleared.
On November 2, 2023, the SEC adopted Regulation SE under the Exchange Act to create a regime for the registration and regulation of SBSEFs. The SEC rules regarding the over-the-counter derivatives market seek to harmonize as closely as practicable with parallel rules of the CFTC that govern SEFs and swap execution generally. Among other things, Regulation SE under the Exchange Act made changes to implement the Exchange Act’s trade execution requirement for security-based swaps
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and address the cross-border application of that requirement; implement Section 765 of the Dodd-Frank Act to mitigate conflicts of interest at SBSEFs and national securities exchanges that trade security-based swaps; and promote consistency between proposed Regulation SE and existing rules under the Exchange Act. Any entity that meets the definition of a SBSEF must file an application to register with the SEC within 180 days of the effective date of February 13, 2024.
The SEC also adopted final rules on December 13, 2023 regarding central clearing of certain secondary market repurchase and reverse repurchase transactions and secondary market purchase and sale transactions involving U.S. Treasury securities. The central clearing mandate will impact certain market participants who do not clear today, and some have expressed concerns about the potential impact of additional clearing costs that may impact liquidity. The full impact of this change, and what effect it will have, whether positive or negative, on our industry, our clients or us is unknown at this time.
In addition, several state laws that have recently come into effect, and may come into effect in the future, have created and will create new compliance obligations in relation to personal data.
U.K. Regulation
The FCA is the relevant statutory regulator for the United Kingdom financial services industry. The FCA’s objectives are to protect customers and financial markets, protect and enhance the integrity of the United Kingdom financial system and promote competition between financial services providers. It has broad rule-making, investigative and enforcement powers derived from the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 and subsequent and derivative legislation and regulations. The FCA’s recent focus has been on financial and operational resilience, and promoting market integrity. Currently, we have subsidiaries regulated by the FCA (some include BGC Brokers L.P., GFI Securities Limited, and GFI Brokers Limited).
From time to time, we have been and are subject to periodic examinations, inspections and investigations, including periodic risk assessment and related reviews of our U.K. group. As a result of such reviews, we may be required to include or enhance certain regulatory structures and frameworks in our operating procedures, systems and controls. When acquiring control of regulated entities, we may be required to obtain the consent of their applicable regulator.
The FCA has in the past developed a practice of requiring senior officers of regulated firms to provide individual attestations or undertakings as to the status of a firm’s control environment, compliance with specific rules and regulations, or the completion of required tasks. Officers of BGC Brokers L.P. and GFI Brokers Limited have previously given such attestations or undertakings and may do so again in the future. Similarly, the FCA can seek a voluntary requirement notice, which is a voluntary undertaking on behalf of a firm that is made publicly available on the FCA’s website. The SMCR came into effect in the U.K. on December 9, 2019 for FCA solo-regulated firms. Personal accountability requirements fall on senior managers, and a wider population of U.K. staff are subject to certification requirements and conduct rules. SMCR has increased the cost of compliance and will potentially increase financial penalties for non-compliance.
European Regulation
The EMIR Directive on OTC derivatives, central counterparties and trade repositories was adopted in July 2012. EMIR fulfills several of the EU’s G20 commitments to reform OTC derivatives markets. The reforms are designed to reduce systemic risk and bring more transparency to both OTC and listed derivatives markets.
Along with the implementation of EMIR reporting requirements, the REMIT Implementation Acts became effective on January 7, 2015. The REMIT Implementing Acts developed by the European Commission define the details of reporting under REMIT, drawing up the list of reportable contracts and derivatives; defining details, timing and form of reporting, and establishing harmonized rules to report that information to the ACER. They enable ACER to collect information in relation to wholesale energy market transactions and fundamentals through the Agency’s REMIT Information System (ARIS), to analyze this data to detect market abuse and to report suspicious events to the National Competent Authorities, which are responsible for investigating these matters further, and if required, imposing sanctions. Market participants and third parties reporting on their behalf have had to: (i) report transactions executed at organized marketplaces and fundamental data from the central information transparency platforms; and (ii) report transactions in the remaining wholesale energy contracts (OTC standard and non-standard supply contracts, transportation contracts) and additional fundamental data.
To achieve a high level of harmonization and convergence in regular supervisory reporting requirements, the Committee of European Banking Supervisors issued guidelines on prudential reporting with the aim of developing a supervisory reporting framework based on common formats, known as COREP. COREP has become part of European Banking Authorities’ implementing technical standards on reporting under Basel III. Basel III (or the Third Basel Accord) is a global regulatory standard on bank capital adequacy, stress testing and market liquidity risk introduced by bank regulators in most, if not all, of the world’s major economies. Basel III is designed to strengthen bank capital requirements and introduces new regulatory requirements on bank liquidity and bank leverage. The ongoing adoption of these rules could restrict the ability of our large bank and broker-dealer customers to operate proprietary trading businesses and to maintain current capital market
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exposures under the present structure of their balance sheets, and will cause these entities to need to raise additional capital in order to stay active in our marketplaces. Meanwhile, global “Basel IV” standards are expected be adopted in the years to come.
Much of our global derivatives volumes continue to be executed by non-U.S. based clients outside the United States and subject to local prudential regulations. As such, we will continue to operate a number of European regulated venues in accordance with EU or U.K. legislation and licensed by EU-based national supervisors or the FCA. These venues are also operated for non-derivative instruments for these clients. MiFID II was published by the European Securities and Markets Authority in September 2015 and implemented in January 2018 and introduced important infrastructural changes.
MiFID II requires a significant part of the market in these instruments to trade on trading venues subject to transparency regimes, not only in pre- and post-trade prices, but also in fee structures and access. In addition, it has impacted a number of key areas, including corporate governance, transaction reporting, pre- and post-trade transparency, technology synchronization, best execution and investor protection.
MiFID II was intended to help improve the functioning of the EU single market by achieving a greater consistency of regulatory standards. By design, therefore, it was intended that EU member states should have very similar regulatory regimes in relation to the matters addressed to MiFID. MiFID II has also introduced a new regulated execution venue category called an OTF that captures much of the voice-and hybrid-oriented trading in the EU. Much of our existing EU derivatives and fixed income execution business now take place on OTFs. Further to its decision to leave the EU, the U.K. has implemented MIFID II’s requirements into its own domestic legislation. Brexit may impact future market structures and MiFID II rulemaking and implementation due to potential changes in mutual passporting and equivalence arrangements between the U.K. and EU member states. See “— Brexit” below.
Rights in relation to an individual’s personal data in the EU and U.K. are governed respectively by the GDPR in the EU and the equivalent Data Protection Act 2018 in the U.K. Since May 25, 2018, when these two pieces of legislation came into effect, we have been subject to new compliance obligations in relation to such personal data and the possibility of significant financial penalties for non-compliance.
The FCA introduced the “Consumer Duty” in July 2023. The purpose of this regulation is to enhance the protection of retail consumers in financial markets. Some other relatively minor divergence of U.K. regulation from EU regulation has occurred since the implementation of Brexit. While we generally believe the net impact of the rules and regulations are positive for our business, it is possible that unintended consequences of the rules and regulations may materially adversely affect us in ways yet to be determined.
Brexit
On January 1, 2021, the U.K. formally left the EU and U.K.-EU trade became subject to a new agreement that was concluded in December of 2020. The exit from the EU is commonly referred to as Brexit. Financial services fall outside of the scope of this trade agreement. At the time the relationship was expected to be determined by a series of “equivalence decisions,” each of which would grant mutual market access for a limited subset of financial services where either party finds the other party has a regulatory regime that achieves similar outcomes to its own. In March 2021, the U.K. and EU agreed a Memorandum of Understanding on Financial Services Regulatory Cooperation which creates a structure for dialogue but does not include commitments on equivalence.
In light of ongoing uncertainties, market participants are still adjusting the way in which they conduct business between the U.K. and EU. The impact of Brexit on the U.K.-EU flow of financial services and economies of the U.K. and the EU member states continues to evolve.
We implemented plans to ensure continuity of service in Europe and continue to have regulated offices in place in many of the major European markets. As part of our ongoing Brexit strategy, ownership of BGC Madrid, Copenhagen and Frankfurt and GFI Paris, Madrid and Dublin branches was transferred to Aurel BGC SAS (a French-based operation and therefore based in the EU) in July 2020. We have been generally increasing our footprint in the EU which includes the establishment of a new branch office of Aurel BGC SAS in Milan and a new office in Monaco under a new local Monaco subsidiary.
Regardless of these and other mitigating measures, our European headquarters and largest operations are in London, and market access risks and uncertainties have had and could continue to have a material adverse effect on our customers, counterparties, business, prospects, financial condition and results of operations. Furthermore, in the future the U.K. and EU’s regulation may diverge, which could disrupt and increase the costs of our operations, and result in a loss of existing levels of cross-border market access.
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Other Regulation
Our subsidiaries that have foreign operations are subject to regulation by the relevant regulatory authorities and self-regulatory organizations in the countries in which they do business. The following table sets forth certain jurisdictions, other than the U.S., in which we do business and the applicable regulatory authority or authorities of each such jurisdiction:
JurisdictionRegulatory Authorities/Self-Regulatory
Organizations
ArgentinaComisión Nacional de Valores
AustraliaAustralian Securities and Investments Commission and Australian Securities Exchange
BahrainThe Central Bank of Bahrain
BrazilBrazilian Securities and Exchange Commission, the Central Bank of Brazil, BM&F BOVESPA and Superintendencia de Seguors Privados
CanadaOntario Securities Commission, Autorite des Marches Financiers (Quebec), Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada (IIROC)
ChileSuperintendencia de Valores y Seguros
ChinaChina Banking Regulatory Commission, State Administration of Foreign Exchange
Colombia
Superintendencia Financiera de Colombia
DenmarkFinanstilsynet
Dubai International Financial Centre
Dubai Financial Supervisory Authority
FranceACPR (L’Autorité de Contrôle Prudentiel et de Résolution), AMF (Autorité des Marchés Financiers)
GermanyBundesanstalt für Finanzdienstleistungsaufsicht (BAFIN)
Hong KongHong Kong Securities and Futures Commission and The Hong Kong Monetary Authority
IrelandCentral Bank of Ireland
ItalyCommissione Nazionale Per Le Societa E La Borsa (CONSOB)
JapanJapanese Financial Services Agency, Japan Securities Dealers Association and the Securities and Exchange Surveillance Commission
MexicoBanking and Securities National Commission, Comision Nacional Bancaria y de Valores (CNBV)
MonacoCommission for the Control of Financial Affairs (CCAF)
PeruMinisterio de Economica y Finanzas
PhilippinesSecurities and Exchange Commission
RussiaFederal Service for Financial Markets
SingaporeMonetary Authority of Singapore
South AfricaJohannesburg Stock Exchange
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South Korea
Financial Services Commission
SpainComision Nacional del Mercado de Valores (CNMV)
SwitzerlandFinancial Markets Supervisory Authority (FINMA), Swiss Federal Banking Commission
United KingdomFinancial Conduct Authority
While we continue to have a compliance framework in place to comply with both existing and proposed rules and regulations, it is possible that the existing regulatory framework may be amended, which amendments could have a positive or negative impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Capital Requirements
U.S.
Every U.S.-registered broker-dealer is subject to the Uniform Net Capital Requirements. FCMs, such as our subsidiary, Mint Brokers, are also subject to CFTC capital requirements. These requirements are designed to ensure financial soundness and liquidity by prohibiting a broker or dealer from engaging in business at a time when it does not satisfy minimum net capital requirements.
In the United States, net capital is essentially defined as net worth (assets minus liabilities), plus qualifying subordinated borrowings and less certain mandatory deductions that result from excluding assets that are not readily convertible into cash and from conservatively valuing certain other assets, such as a firm’s positions in securities. Among these deductions are adjustments, commonly referred to as “haircuts,” to the market value of securities positions to reflect the market risk of such positions prior to their liquidation or disposition. The Uniform Net Capital Requirements also impose a minimum ratio of debt to equity, which may include qualified subordinated borrowings.
Regulations have been adopted by the SEC that prohibit the withdrawal of equity capital of a broker-dealer, restrict the ability of a broker-dealer to distribute or engage in any transaction with a parent company or an affiliate that results in a reduction of equity capital or to provide an unsecured loan or advance against equity capital for the direct or indirect benefit of certain persons related to the broker-dealer (including partners and affiliates) if the broker-dealer’s net capital is, or would be as a result of such withdrawal, distribution, reductions, loan or advance, below specified thresholds of excess net capital. In addition, the SEC’s regulations require certain notifications to be provided in advance of such withdrawals, distributions, reductions, loans and advances that exceed, in the aggregate, 30% of excess net capital within any 30-day period. The SEC has the authority to restrict, for up to 20 business days, such withdrawal, distribution or reduction of capital if the SEC concludes that it may be detrimental to the financial integrity of the broker-dealer or may expose its customers or creditors to loss. Notice is required following any such withdrawal, distribution, reduction, loan or advance that exceeds, in the aggregate, 20% of excess net capital within any 30-day period. The SEC’s regulations limiting withdrawals of excess net capital do not preclude the payment to employees of “reasonable compensation.”
Four of our subsidiaries, BGCF, GFI Securities LLC, Fenics Execution, LLC and Mint Brokers, are registered with the SEC and are subject to the Uniform Net Capital Requirements. As an FCM, Mint Brokers is also subject to CFTC minimum capital requirements. BGCF, GFI Securities LLC, Fenics Execution, LLC, Amerex Brokers LLC and Trident Brokerage Services LLC are registered as Introducing Brokers with the NFA. BGCF is also a member of the FICC, which imposes capital requirements on its members.
In addition, our SEFs, BGC Derivative Markets and GFI Swaps Exchange are required to maintain financial resources to cover operating costs for at least one year, keeping at least enough cash or highly liquid securities to cover six months’ operating costs. The Company also operates a DCM, FMX Futures Exchange, and DCO, CX Clearinghouse, L.P., through the Futures Exchange Group, which are required to maintain financial resources to cover operating costs for at least one year, keeping at least enough cash or highly liquid securities to cover six months’ operating costs. Compliance with the Uniform Net Capital Requirements may limit the extent and nature of our operations requiring the use of our registered broker-dealer subsidiaries’ capital, and could also restrict or preclude our ability to withdraw capital from our broker-dealer subsidiaries or SEFs.

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Non-U.S.
Our international operations are also subject to capital requirements in their local jurisdiction. BGC Brokers L.P., GFI Brokers Limited, and GFI Securities Limited, which are based in the U.K., are currently subject to solo capital requirements established by the FCA’s Investment Firm Prudential Regime. In addition, BGC European Holdings LP is subject to the FCA’s consolidated capital requirements. The capital requirements of our French entities (and their EU branches) are predominantly set by ACPR and AMF. U.K. and EU authorities apply stringent provisions with respect to capital applicable to the operation of these brokerage firms, which vary depending upon the nature and extent of their activities.
In addition, the majority of our other foreign subsidiaries are subject to similar regulation by the relevant authorities in the countries in which they do business. Additionally, certain other of our foreign subsidiaries are required to maintain non-U.S. net capital requirements. For example, in Hong Kong, BGC Securities (Hong Kong), LLC, GFI (HK) Securities LLC and Sunrise Brokers (Hong Kong) Limited are regulated by the Securities and Futures Commission. BGC Capital Markets (Hong Kong) Limited and GFI (HK) Brokers Ltd, are regulated by The Hong Kong Monetary Authority. All are subject to Hong Kong net capital requirements. In France, Aurel BGC SAS and BGC France Holdings; in Australia, Fixed Income Solutions Pty Ltd and BGC Partners (Australia) Pty Limited; in Japan, BGC Shoken Kaisha Limited’s Tokyo branch and BGC Capital Markets Japan LLC’s Tokyo Branch; in Singapore, BGC Partners (Singapore) Limited, GFI Group Pte Ltd and Ginga Global Market Pte Ltd; in South Korea, BGC Capital Markets & Foreign Exchange Broker (Korea) Limited and GFI Korea Money Brokerage Limited; in the Philippines, GFI Group (Philippines) Inc., all have net capital requirements imposed upon them by local regulators. In addition, the LCH (LIFFE/LME) clearing organization, of which BGC Brokers L.P. is a member, also imposes minimum capital requirements. In Latin America, BGC Liquidez Distribuidora De Titulos E Valores Mobiliarios Ltda. (Brazil) has net capital requirements imposed upon it by local regulators.
We had net assets in our regulated subsidiaries of $734.1 million and $666.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2023 and 2022, respectively.
Human Capital Management
Unless the context indicates otherwise, references in this Human Capital Management section to our “employees” include our professionals who are independent contractors.
Our Fundamental Values
BGC is an organization built on strong values, employee engagement and ownership. At our core, we are committed to our employees by providing an opportunity to participate in our success. We believe that by cultivating a dynamic mix of people and ideas, we enrich the performance of our business, the experience of our increasingly diverse employee base and the dynamism of the communities in which we operate. We value hard work, innovation, superior client service, strong ethics and governance, equal opportunities, and philanthropy. These values are woven into our corporate culture. We believe these values foster sustainable, profitable growth. We strive to be exemplary corporate citizens and honor high ethical principles in our interactions with other businesses, our employees and the communities in which we live and work. We take corporate social responsibility and sustainability seriously: we want to contribute to the common good.
Workforce
As of December 31, 2023, we employed approximately 3,895 employees in 27 countries spread across five continents. Within this total, 99% of our employee base was comprised of full-time employees. Brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel across our business comprise approximately 2,104 employees, representing 54.0% of the total workforce. Approximately 28.0% of our brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel were based in the Americas, and approximately 51.0% were based in Europe, the Middle East and Africa, with the remaining approximately 21.0% based in the Asia-Pacific region. Various of our employees also work for Cantor and its affiliates and provide services to us pursuant to the Administrative Services Agreement and devote only a portion of their time to our business, and therefore have not been included in the counts above. Generally, our employees are not subject to any collective bargaining agreements, except for certain of our employees based in our Latin American and European offices that are covered by the national, industry-wide collective bargaining agreements relevant to the countries in which they work.
We have invested significantly in our human capital resources through acquisitions, and the hiring of new brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel. The business climate for these acquisitions and recruitment has been competitive, and it is expected that these conditions will persist for the foreseeable future. We have been able to attract businesses and brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel to our platform as we believe they recognize that we have the scale, technology, experience and expertise to succeed.
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Human Capital Measures and Objectives
In operating our business, we focus on certain human capital measures and objectives that are key drivers of our revenues and margins. We continually work to expand our trading across more products and geographical regions and to grow our Fully Electronic business while seeking to manage our human capital resources to maximize our profitability in the face of shifting demands and conditions.
Our key human capital measures and objectives include front-office employee headcount (described above) and average revenue per front-office employee. As we continue to deepen the integration of Fenics technology solutions into our workflows, and convert more of our Voice and Hybrid businesses to our Fenics businesses, we expect our average revenue per front-office employee to continue to improve. As of December 31, 2023, our front-office revenue-generating headcount was approximately 2,104 brokers and salespeople, managers and technology professionals, up 6.0% from 1,985 a year ago due to acquisitions and investments made to broaden our existing product offerings. Compared to the prior year period, average revenue per front-office employee for the year ended December 31, 2023, increased by 11.4% to approximately $958,000.
We invest heavily in developing our technology and new products and services in order to drive increased front-office productivity and generate higher margins, in particular with respect to our Fenics businesses. For example, converting Voice and Hybrid trading to Fully Electronic trading generally improves our margins as automated and electronic trading allows the same number of employees to manage a greater volume of trades resulting in a decrease in the marginal cost of trading. Our Fully Electronic business has generally grown faster than our overall business, with average front office productivity increasing by 11.4% for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared to the prior year. We constantly manage our cost-base and may engage in cost-savings initiatives and restructurings in order to improve our margins.
Retention Measures
To facilitate the retention of our employees, we have maintained our flexible work arrangements, where appropriate, made compensation adjustments, and provided additional benefits, including a 401(k) match for many of our U.S. support employees.
We have taken significant measures to develop a safe work environment for all employees, which is conducive to work in our office locations, particularly for front-office brokers and revenue generating employees, subject to applicable state and local regulatory requirements. We have established a more flexible hybrid approach in many instances for non-revenue generating roles or for roles which are not office dependent, where appropriate. We continue to offer employee assistance programs and additional avenues for mental health consultation and wellness. We continue to take significant steps to protect our employees and encourage them all to get vaccinated.
Performance-Based and Highly Retentive Compensation Structure
Many of our key brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front office professionals have a substantial amount of their own capital invested in our business, aligning their interests with our stockholders. We believe that our emphasis on equity-based compensation promotes recruitment, motivation of our brokers and employees and alignment of interest with shareholders. Virtually all of our executives and front-office employees have equity stakes in the Company and generally receive grants of deferred equity as part of their compensation. We believe that having investments in us, our executives and key brokers and other employees feel a sense of responsibility for the health and performance of our business and have a strong incentive to maximize our revenues and profitability. As of December 31, 2023, our employees, executive officers and directors individually owned approximately 13% of our equity, on a fully diluted basis.
We currently issue RSUs, and in the case of certain U.K. employees who held partnership units prior to the Corporate Conversion, restricted stock awards, as well as other forms of equity-based compensation, to provide liquidity to our employees, to align the interests of our employees and management with those of common stockholders, to help motivate and retain key employees, and to encourage a collaborative culture that drives cross-selling and revenue growth. These awards contain extended vesting schedules which we consider to be highly retentive and that vary based upon compensation level and role (typically three-to-seven-year ratable vesting), which in most cases are largely dependent upon continued service.
Prior to the Corporate Conversion, we issued limited partnership units, as well as other forms of unit-based compensation, including grants of exchangeability of limited partnership units into shares of BGC Class A common stock and grants of shares of our restricted stock, to motivate and retain key employees. These limited partnership units, which could be redeemed at any time for zero, were subject to forfeiture if the non-compete, confidentiality or non-solicit provisions of the BGC Holdings Limited Partnership Agreement related to these awards were violated, were also extremely retentive. In addition, prior to the Corporate Conversion, we paid amounts due to a partner upon termination of service over a number of years in order to ensure compliance with partner obligations.
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We also enter into various agreements with certain of our employees, and prior to the Corporate Conversion, partners whereby these individuals receive loans which may be either wholly or in part repaid from the distributions that the individuals receive on some or all of their LPUs in BGC Holdings and Newmark Holdings, prior to the Corporate Conversion, and by distributions that the individuals receive on some or all of their LPUs in Newmark Holdings and any dividends paid on participating RSUs and restricted stock awards, subsequent to the Corporate Conversion. Certain of these loans also may be either wholly or in part repaid from the proceeds of the sale of our employees’ shares of BGC Class A common stock. In addition, certain loans may be forgiven over a period of time. We believe that these loans incentivize and promote retention of our employees.
Compensation Recovery/Clawback Policy
The Company has adopted a Clawback Policy for its executive officers effective as of December 1, 2023, with retroactive applicability to October 2, 2023. The Clawback Policy applies to Incentive-Based Compensation. The Clawback Policy provides for recovery of Incentive-Based Compensation received by a covered person in the event of an accounting restatement due to material noncompliance with financial reporting requirements that is in excess of the Incentive-Based Compensation that such person would have received based upon the restated financial reporting measure. The Clawback Policy only applies to Incentive-Based Compensation and does not apply to compensation that is purely discretionary or purely based on subjective goals or goals unrelated to financial reporting measures.
Human Capital and Social Policies and Practices
We are committed to our people, our stockholders and the community as a whole. We have a variety of programs to incentivize and support our employees, from employee ownership to comprehensive benefits and training. We have a passionate commitment to charity.
Employee Diversity, Inclusion and Equal Opportunity
We believe that by cultivating a dynamic mix of people and ideas, we improve the performance of our business and enrich the experience of our employees. We are committed to equal opportunity, diversity and other policies and practices that seek to further our development of a diverse and inclusive workplace. We consider all qualified applicants for job openings and promotions without regard to race, color, religion or belief, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or reassignment, national origin or ancestry, age, disability, service in the armed forces, pregnancy or maternity, familial status, marriage and civil partnership, genetic information or any other characteristic that has no bearing on the ability of employees to do their jobs well. We continue to develop initiatives to support these values.
Attracting and Retaining the Best Talent
Our recruitment, promotion and compensation processes are designed to enable us to treat employees fairly, and our compensation decisions are differentiated based on performance. Our success depends on our ability to attract and retain talented, productive and skilled brokers and technologists and other employees to transact with our customers in a challenging and regulated environment that is experiencing ever-increasing competition for talent. We are investing in creating a diverse, inclusive and incentivized work environment where our people can deliver their best work every day.
Talent remains at the core of who we are as a company, and we remain committed to having a culture built around inclusion which we expect will increase the diversity of our workforce. We continue to work to enhance our ability to attract, develop and retain top talent with an emphasis on increasing opportunities for representation of traditionally underrepresented groups at all levels of the organization, encompassing people early in their careers and experienced personnel, and hiring, retention, and development initiatives with a focus on diversity and inclusion. Our goal is to build an even more successful organization that more closely reflects our clients bases and the population at large.
Employee Resource Groups
In order to incentivize and enable our employees to grow both professionally and personally, we build employee resource groups. A number of initiatives across our geographic regions are in place to promote our corporate values and foster greater diversity and inclusion. Examples include a range of early career work experiences and internship programs focusing on diverse talent, mentorship programs, and initiatives to foster women’s leadership.
The Network of Women – The Network of Women (“NOW”) program supports the recruitment, development and retention of women across our organization. NOW strives to offer a variety of opportunities and tools to help our employees make new professional contacts, find mentors, and develop their careers with the goal of advancing our business reputation.
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These events and activities also provide opportunities for our members to support one another through a valuable exchange of experiences, advice and best practices for career success.
As an organization dedicated to economic growth, opportunity, integrity, and commitment, we seek to empower women within BGC and within the communities we affect and serve as a business. The work of our long-standing Network of Women is a key driving force in accomplishing this goal.
The Rising Professionals League – The Rising Professionals League (“RPL”) was introduced to build upon the legacy of Cantor Fitzgerald by inspiring early career professionals to grow professionally and socially while promoting a cohesive environment and positively impacting the community. RPL strives to instill a strong sense of inclusion and belonging for early career professionals through a variety of opportunities that promote professional development and support the community through acts of thoughtful service.
Employee Engagement, Communication, Management and Leadership Training and Development
We are investing in our employees’ long-term development and engagement by delivering training and development programs and fostering a culture where our people can thrive and maximize their potential. We require annual regulatory and mandatory training in anti-money laundering and anti-crime, global sanctions, ethics, cyber-security and harassment prevention, among other topics. We also provide or support periodic job-specific and other developmental training for our employees so they can maximize their potential, as well as a tuition reimbursement program for eligible employees.
We provide virtual and in-person leadership training to managers on topics including management effectiveness, communication skills, interview skills and delivering effective performance evaluations, managing diverse teams and other topics. This training is supplemented by a library of online training courses that managers and employees have access to on a number of topics to assist them in their career development and, if applicable, management skills. Our individual business lines offer ongoing learning and development opportunities tied to deepening the understanding of the subject matter expertise of their professionals. We also have intern and early career programs throughout the year in various parts of our business.
Our success depends on employees’ understanding of how their work and engagement contribute to our strategy, culture, values, and regulatory environment. We use various channels to facilitate open and direct communication, including internal calls and meetings with employees, training and policy updates, employee resource groups such as NOW and RPL, and social and family outings and events. We have also rolled out organizational Core Values (Integrity, Commitment and Opportunity), appointed Culture Champions in our London office, and implemented other initiatives which seek to embed these values and drive an enhanced culture across our workforce.
Succession Planning
From time to time, the Board discusses succession planning, including our consideration of succession strategy, the impact of any potential absence due to illness or leave of certain key executive officers or employees, as well as competing demands on the time of certain of our executive officers who also provide services to Cantor, Newmark, and various other ventures and investments sponsored by Cantor. Our Board also discusses from time to time, as part of its succession planning, engagement and encouragement of future business leaders and the process of introducing directors to leaders in our business lines, including discussing business strategies and challenges with our existing senior business leaders. The Board may also discuss short-term succession in the event that certain of the senior executive officers should, on an interim or unexpected basis, become temporarily unable to fulfill their duties. The Board also considers hiring and retention of leaders required for the changing business landscape and to lead future business lines. At the business and departmental levels, managers discuss and identify potential talent, opportunities for employee growth, successors, and future leaders.
Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) / Sustainability Information
We believe that our ESG policies and practices will create sustainable long-term value for BGC, our stockholders and other stakeholders, our clients and our employees while also helping us mitigate risks, reduce costs, protect brand value, and identify market opportunities.
In April 2021, we established a Board-level ESG Committee to provide oversight with respect to our ESG and sustainability policies and practices. The ESG Committee charter may be found on our website at www.bgcg.com/esg/governance under the heading “Independent Environmental, Social and Governance Committee.” With the Board’s and the ESG Committee’s oversight, we are embedding social and human capital, employment, environmental, sustainability, charitable and corporate governance policies and practices into our corporate strategy, compensation, disclosure, and goals to maintain and advance long-term stockholder value.
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For more information about these topics, new and evolving initiatives and specific examples of policies and practices, see our website at www.bgcg.com/esg.
Our Environmental Focus, Environmental Markets and Sustainable Business Practices
We are focused on the environment and recognize the importance of treating our natural resources with the greatest respect, so that they are available to future generations. As a responsible business operating within financial services, we are actively aware of climate change and other major issues affecting the environment. Our philosophy is that long-term change in the way in which we use energy, and our collective impact on the environment, cannot happen without the involvement of the world’s capital markets.
Sustainable Business Practices
We aim to be a leading broker for the transition to a green economy, and we believe BGC Environmental Brokerage Services is a leader in the world’s environmental and green energy markets. Our Environmental Brokerage Services business, established in 2011, provides expert innovative carbon offset solutions and advice to the world’s green energy markets, from transactions and financing to technology and consulting. For decades, we have helped clients worldwide navigate complex financial requirements in order to achieve their environmental initiatives, thereby supporting our clients’ efforts to meet their emission reduction goals through the provision of brokerage services.
In 2023, we announced the launch of our Weather Derivatives business, expanding BGC’s brokerage business into the weather and climate space. The Weather Derivatives business helps market participants analyze climate-related risks and mitigate their financial exposure. We are providing liquidity to these increasingly important markets as the role of weather and climate change impacts the way risk is managed. The launch of this business highlights BGC’s commitment to expand and explore new opportunities across the global energy and commodities space.
For more information on BGC Environmental Brokerage Services, please visit www.bgcebs.com.
Workplace Strategies
In our workplaces, we are studying how to make our own contribution to state, national and global environmental initiatives and require the same of our vendors and suppliers when doing business with us. As part of this, we are considering how to minimize our future carbon footprint when planning office renovations and will continue to focus our attention in the near term on methods of reducing our greenhouse gas emissions, increasing use of renewable energy, conserving water, and reducing waste generation.
BGC supports sustainable business practices and is focused on the steps necessary to establish a sustainability program internally as we focus on our own energy usage. We believe it is our responsibility to improve energy efficiency and reduce energy consumption to protect the environment through continuous improvement of our energy use practices and increased scrutiny on the energy efficiency of the buildings we utilize for our space. We intend to continue to work on these initiatives. For more information about these initiatives as they evolve, visit our website at www.bgcg.com/esg/environmental.
To learn more about our policies and practices and our continuing efforts related to Human Capital Management, ESG and sustainability matters, please refer to the ESG and sustainability section of our website at www.bgcg.com/esg and to our periodic reports filed under the Exchange Act for further information. You may also find our Corporate Governance Guidelines, Code of Ethics, the charters of the committees of our Board of Directors, Hedging Policy, Environmental Policy, information about our charitable initiatives and other ESG and sustainability policies and practices on our website. The information contained on, or that may be accessed through, our websites or other websites referenced herein, is not part of, and not incorporated into, this document.

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OUR ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
Dual Class Equity Structure of BGC Group, Inc. We have a dual class equity structure, consisting of shares of BGC Class A common stock and BGC Class B common stock. We expect to retain and have no plans to change our dual class structure.
BGC Class A common stock. Each share of BGC Class A common stock is generally entitled to one vote on matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders. As of December 31, 2023, there were 403.6 million shares of BGC Class A common stock issued and 390.1 million shares outstanding. On June 21, 2017, Cantor pledged 10.0 million shares of BGC Class A common stock in connection with a partner loan program. On November 23, 2018, those shares of BGC Class A common stock were converted into 10.0 million shares of BGC Class B common stock and remain pledged in connection with the partner loan program, as amended and restated effective as of October 5, 2023 with such modifications thereto as necessary to reflect the Corporate Conversion.
Prior to the Corporate Conversion, Cantor, CFGM and other Cantor affiliates were entitled to exchange BGC Partners Class A common stock into shares of BGC Partners Class B common stock from time to time, on a one-to-one basis, subject to adjustment. See Exchange Agreement with Cantor Prior to the Corporate Conversion” for more information.
From time to time, we may actively continue to repurchase shares of our Class A common stock including from Cantor, Newmark, our executive officers, other employees, partners and others.
BGC Class B common stock. Each share of BGC Class B common stock is generally entitled to the same rights as a share of BGC Class A common stock, except that, on matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders, each share of BGC Class B common stock is entitled to 10 votes. The BGC Class B common stock generally votes together with the BGC Class A common stock on all matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders. As of December 31, 2023, Cantor and CFGM held an aggregate of 96.3 million shares of BGC Class B common stock, representing 88.0% of the outstanding shares of BGC Class B common stock and approximately 64.8% of our total voting power. As of December 31, 2023, Mr. Lutnick and individuals related to Mr. Lutnick owned 13.1 million shares of our outstanding Class B common stock, representing 12.0% of the outstanding shares of BGC Class B common stock and approximately 8.9% of our total voting power. Together, Cantor, CFGM, Mr. Lutnick and individuals related to Mr. Lutnick owned 100.0% of the outstanding shares of BGC Class B common stock and approximately 73.7% of our total voting power.
Shares of BGC Class B common stock are convertible into shares of BGC Class A common stock at any time in the discretion of the holder on a one-for-one basis. Accordingly, if Cantor, CFGM, Mr. Lutnick and individuals related to Mr. Lutnick converted all of their BGC Class B common stock into BGC Class A common stock on December 31, 2023, Cantor would have held 18.7% of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock, CFGM would have held 0.6% of the voting power, Mr. Lutnick and individuals related to Mr. Lutnick would have held 6.4% of the voting power, and the public stockholders would have held 74.3% of the voting power of our outstanding capital stock (and Cantor and CFGM’s indirect economic interests in BGC U.S. and BGC Global would remain unchanged).
As a result of the Corporate Conversion, 64.0 million Cantor units, including 5.7 million purchased on June 30, 2023, were converted into shares of BGC Group Class B common stock, subject to the terms and conditions of the Corporate Conversion Agreement, provided that a portion of the 64.0 million shares of BGC Group Class B common stock issued to Cantor will exchange into BGC Group Class A common stock in the event that BGC Group does not issue at least $75,000,000 in shares of BGC Group Class A or B common stock in connection with certain acquisition transactions prior to July 1, 2030, the seventh anniversary of the Corporate Conversion.
On July 2, 2023, Cantor distributed an aggregate of 15.8 million shares of Class B common stock held by it in satisfaction of its remaining deferred share distribution obligations pursuant to the April 2008 distribution rights shares and the February 2012 distribution rights shares. 14.0 million of the July 2023 distribution shares were distributed to satisfy April 2008 distribution rights shares and 1.8 million of the July 2023 distribution shares were distributed to satisfy February 2012 distribution rights shares. 15.4 million of the July 2023 distribution shares will remain Class B common stock in the hands of the recipient, and 0.4 million of such shares were converted into an equivalent number of shares of Class A common stock in the hands of the recipient pursuant to the terms of BGC Group’s Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation. Upon distribution of the July 2023 distribution shares, Cantor satisfied all obligations to deliver shares of common stock to satisfy the April 2008 distribution rights shares and February 2012 distribution rights shares.
Exchange Agreement with Cantor Prior to the Corporate Conversion
On June 5, 2015, we entered into the Exchange Agreement with Cantor providing Cantor, CFGM and other Cantor affiliates entitled to hold BGC Partners Class B common stock the right to exchange BGC Partners Class A common stock into
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shares of BGC Partners Class B common stock from time to time, on a one-to-one basis, subject to adjustment. As of December 31, 2023, Cantor and CFGM did not own any shares of BGC Partners Class A common stock. In connection with the Corporate Conversion on July 1, 2023, the Exchange Agreement with Cantor terminated in accordance with its own terms.
Amendments to the BGC Holdings Partnership Agreement Prior to the Corporate Conversion
On December 13, 2017, the Amended and Restated BGC Holdings Partnership Agreement was amended and restated a second time to include prior standalone amendments and to make certain other changes related to the Separation.
The BGC Holdings Partnership Agreement also removed certain classes of BGC Holdings units that were no longer outstanding, and permitted the general partner of BGC Holdings to determine the total number of authorized BGC Holdings units. The BGC Holdings Limited Partnership Agreement was approved by the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors of BGC Partners.
On March 10, 2023, BGC Holdings entered into the LPA Amendment. The LPA Amendment revised certain restrictive covenants pertaining to the “Partner Obligations” and “Competitive Activity” provisions in the BGC Holdings Partnership Agreement. Specifically, the LPA Amendment (i) reduced the length of the post-termination period during which a partner must refrain from soliciting or doing business with customers, soliciting employees, engaging in a “Competing Business,” or otherwise refraining from harming the partnership; and (ii) revised the scope of the non-compete under the “Partner Obligations” and “Competitive Activity” provisions in the BGC Holdings Limited Partnership Agreement to cover “Competing Businesses” (as defined therein) for which a partner performed the same or similar services (a) involving a product, product line or type, or service of a “Protected Affiliate” (as defined therein) within a specific geographic area, (b) involving a “Client” or a “Client Representative” (each as defined therein) of a Protected Affiliate, or (c) for which the likely disclosure of confidential information was inevitable. The LPA Amendment was approved by the Board of Directors and Audit and Compensation Committee of BGC Partners.
Classes of Founding/Working Partner Interests and Limited Partnership Units Prior to the Corporate Conversion
Prior to the Corporate Conversion, our executives and front-office employees held partnership stakes in us and our subsidiaries and generally received their equity compensation through LPUs. Upon the closing of the Corporate Conversion, the BGC Holdings Limited Partnership Agreement was terminated, and the former stockholders of BGC Partners and former limited partners of BGC Holdings now participate in the economics of the BGC businesses through BGC Group. Following the Corporate Conversion, the equity portion of our compensation structure is no longer based upon the issuance of partnership units but instead based upon the use of equity awards issued under the Equity Plan in order to incentivize and retain our employees, executive officers, and directors, such as RSUs.
Prior to the Corporate Conversion, while BGC Holdings limited partnership interests generally entitled our partners to participate in distributions of income from the operations of our business, upon leaving BGC Holdings (or upon any other redemption or purchase of such limited partnership interests as described below) any such partners were only entitled to receive over time, and provided he or she did not violate certain partner obligations, an amount for his or her BGC Holdings limited partnership interests that reflected such partner’s capital account or compensatory grant awards, excluding any goodwill or going concern value of our business, unless Cantor, in the case of the founding partners, and we, as the general partner of BGC Holdings at that time, otherwise determined. We also could have effected redemptions of BGC Holdings LPUs and FPUs and concurrently granted shares of our Class A common stock, or could have granted our partners the right to exchange their BGC Holdings limited partnership interests for shares of our Class A common stock (if, in the case of founding partners, Cantor so determined and, in the case of working partners and limited partnership unit holders, if we, as the BGC Holdings general partner at that time, with Cantor’s consent, determined otherwise) and thereby allowed them to realize any higher value associated with our Class A common stock. Similar provisions with respect to Newmark Holdings limited partnership interests are contained in the Newmark Holdings limited partnership agreement.
Limited partnership interests in BGC Holdings (prior to the Corporate Conversion) and Newmark Holdings (received in connection with the Spin-Off) consist of: (i) “founding/working partner units” held by limited partners who are employees of the relevant company; (ii) “limited partnership units,” which consist of a variety of units that are generally held by employees such as REUs, RPUs, PSUs, PSIs, PSEs, HDUs, U.K. LPUs, APSUs, APSIs, APSEs, AREUs, ARPUs and N Units; (iii) “Cantor units” which are the exchangeable limited partnership interests held by Cantor entities; and (iv) Preferred Units, which are working partner units that may be awarded to holders of, or contemporaneous with, the grant of certain limited partnership units. These Preferred Units carried the same name as the underlying unit, with the insertion of an additional “P” to designate them as Preferred Units. Such Preferred Units could not be made exchangeable into BGC Class A common stock and accordingly were not included in the fully diluted share count. Each quarter, the net profits of BGC Holdings were allocated to such Preferred Units at a rate of either 0.6875% (which is 2.75% per calendar year) of the allocation amount assigned to them based on their award price, or such other amount as set forth in the award documentation, before calculation and distribution of
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the quarterly BGC Holdings distribution for the remaining BGC Holdings units. The Preferred Units were not entitled to participate in BGC Holdings distributions other than with respect to the Preferred Distribution.
Non-distributing partnership units, or N Units, carried the same name as the underlying unit with the insertion of an additional “N” to designate them as the N Unit type and were designated as NREUs, NPREUs, NLPUs, NPLPUs and NPPSUs. The N Units were not entitled to participate in BGC Holdings distributions, were not allocated any items of profit or loss and were not made exchangeable into shares of BGC Class A common stock. Subject to the approval of the Compensation Committee or its designee, certain N Units may have been converted into the underlying unit type (i.e., an NREU could be converted into an REU) and could then participate in BGC Holdings distributions, subject to terms and conditions determined by us as the general partner of BGC Holdings, in our sole discretion, including that the recipient continue to provide substantial services to us and comply with his or her partnership obligations.
Cantor’s Right to Purchase Cantor Units Prior to the Corporate Conversion
Prior to the Corporate Conversion, Cantor had the right to purchase Cantor units from BGC Holdings upon redemption of non-exchangeable FPUs redeemed by BGC Holdings upon termination or bankruptcy of the Founding/Working Partner. In addition, where either current, terminating, or terminated partners were permitted by the Company to exchange any portion of their FPUs and Cantor consented to such exchangeability, the Company would offer to Cantor the opportunity for Cantor to purchase the same number of Cantor units in BGC Holdings at the price that Cantor would have paid for Cantor units had the Company redeemed the FPUs. If Cantor acquired any Cantor units as a result of the purchase or redemption by BGC Holdings of any FPUs, Cantor would be entitled to the benefits (including distributions) of such units it acquired from the date of termination or bankruptcy of the applicable Founding/Working Partner.
On April 16, 2023, Cantor purchased from BGC Holdings an aggregate of (i) 533,757 Cantor units for aggregate consideration of $1,051,080 as a result of the redemption of 533,757 FPUs, and (ii) 85,775 Cantor units for aggregate consideration of $173,154 as a result of the exchange of 85,775 FPUs. On June 30, 2023, Cantor purchased from BGC Holdings an aggregate 143,885 Cantor units for aggregate consideration of $285,421 as a result of the redemption of 143,885 FPUs.
In connection with the Corporate Conversion, on June 30, 2023, Cantor purchased from BGC Holdings an aggregate of 5,605,547 Cantor units for aggregate consideration of $10,029,063 as a result of the redemption and exchange of the remaining 5,605,547 FPUs outstanding at that time. Following such purchases, there were no FPUs remaining in BGC Holdings.
BGC OpCos Partnership Structures
We are a holding company with no direct operations, and our business is operated through two operating partnerships, BGC U.S. OpCo, which holds our U.S. businesses, and BGC Global OpCo, which holds our non-U.S. businesses.
Prior to the Corporate Conversion, the limited partnership interests of the two operating partnerships were held by us and BGC Holdings, and the limited partnership interests of BGC Holdings were held by LPU holders, Founding Partners, and Cantor. We held the BGC Holdings general partnership interest and the BGC Holdings special voting limited partnership interest, which entitled us to remove and appoint the general partner of BGC Holdings, and served as the general partner of BGC Holdings, which entitled us to control BGC Holdings. BGC Holdings, in turn, held the BGC U.S. OpCo general partnership interest and the BGC U.S. OpCo special voting limited partnership interest, which entitled the holder thereof to remove and appoint the general partner of BGC U.S. OpCo, and the BGC Global OpCo general partnership interest and the BGC Global OpCo special voting limited partnership interest, which entitled the holder thereof to remove and appoint the general partner of BGC Global OpCo, and served as the general partner of BGC U.S. OpCo and BGC Global OpCo, all of which entitled BGC Holdings (and thereby us) to control each of BGC U.S. OpCo and BGC Global OpCo.
Since BGC Holdings held BGC U.S. OpCo limited partnership interests and BGC Global OpCo limited partnership interests, LPU holders, Founding Partners, and Cantor indirectly had interests in BGC U.S. OpCo limited partnership interests and BGC Global OpCo limited partnership interests. Further, in connection with the Separation and Distribution Agreement, limited partnership interests in Newmark Holdings were distributed to the holders of limited partnership interests in BGC Holdings, whereby each holder of BGC Holdings limited partnership interests who at that time held a BGC Holdings limited partnership interest received a corresponding Newmark Holdings limited partnership interest, equal in number to a BGC Holdings limited partnership interest divided by 2.2 (i.e., 0.4545 of a unit in Newmark Holdings). Accordingly, existing partners at the time of the Separation in BGC Holdings are also partners in Newmark Holdings and received corresponding units issued at the applicable ratio. Thus, such partners have an indirect interest in Newmark OpCo.
As a result of a series of transactions prior to and in anticipation of the Corporate Conversion, all BGC Holdings units held by Newmark employees were redeemed or exchanged, in each case, for shares of BGC Class A common stock or cash.
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Upon the closing of the Corporate Conversion, the BGC Holdings Limited Partnership Agreement was terminated, we became the owner of all of the limited partnership interests of the two BGC operating partnerships, and the former stockholders of BGC Partners and former limited partners of BGC Holdings now participate in the economics of the BGC businesses through BGC Group.
Pre-Corporate Conversion Structure of BGC Partners, Inc. as of June 30, 2023
The diagram below reflects the ownership structure of BGC Partners and BGC Holdings as of June 30, 2023 and prior to the Corporate Conversion. The diagram does not reflect the various subsidiaries of BGC, BGC U.S. OpCo, BGC Global OpCo, or Cantor, or the noncontrolling interests in our consolidated subsidiaries that existed on June 30, 2023 other than Cantor’s units in BGC Holdings. The diagram also does not reflect certain BGC Holdings partnership units and RSUs as follows, in each case as of June 30, 2023: (a) 29.5 million Preferred Units, including Preferred N Units, granted and outstanding to BGC Holdings partners; (b) 39.2 million N Units, excluding Preferred N Units, granted and outstanding to BGC Holdings partners; (c) 22.5 million RSUs issued on June 30, 2023, in exchange for partners’ units in BGC Holdings; (d) 12.3 million RSUs issued prior to June 30, 2023; (e) RSU Tax Accounts associated with certain RSUs; (f) 1.7 million contingent shares issued in exchange for former partners’ units in BGC Holdings; and (g) 1.2 million contingent shares related to acquisitions.
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BGC Org Chart as of June 30, 2023 (8.2.23).jpg

The diagram reflects the following activity of BGC Class A common stock and BGC Holdings partnership unit activity from January 1, 2023 through June 30, 2023: (a) 16.1 million shares of BGC Class A common stock issued for vested N Units; (b) 2.4 million shares of BGC Class A common stock issued for vested RSUs; (c) an aggregate of 4.3 million limited partnership units granted by BGC Holdings; (d) 10.7 million shares of BGC Class A common stock repurchased by BGC
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Partners; (e) 2.8 million shares of Class A common stock issued by BGC Partners under its acquisition shelf Registration Statement on Form S-4 (Registration No. 333-169232), of which there were no shares remaining available for issuance under such Registration Statement as of June 30, 2023, and 2.3 million shares of Class A common stock issued by BGC Partners under the acquisition shelf 2019 Form S-4 Registration Statement (Registration No. 333-233761) but not the 17.7 million of such shares remaining available for issuance by BGC Partners under such Registration Statement as of June 30, 2023; (f) 0.5 million limited partnership units forfeited; (g) 0.7 million limited partnership units related to prior period adjustments; (h) 0.8 million limited partnership units for vested N Units; and (i) 20 thousand shares issued by BGC Partners under its DRIP Registration Statement (Registration No. 333-173109), but not the 9.2 million of such shares remaining available for issuance by BGC Partners under the DRIP Registration Statement as of June 30, 2023.
Current Structure of BGC Group, Inc. as of December 31, 2023 (Following the Corporate Conversion)
The following diagram illustrates our organizational structure as of December 31, 2023. The diagram does not reflect the various subsidiaries of BGC Partners, BGC U.S. OpCo, BGC Global OpCo, or Cantor, or the noncontrolling interests in our consolidated subsidiaries. The diagram also does not reflect certain ownership of BGC Group as follows: (a) for purposes of economic percentages, 22.4 million shares of BGC Group Class A restricted common stock as these are not entitled to receive any dividends (however, these shares of BGC Group Class restricted common stock are included for voting power of BGC Group); (b) 11.1 million assumed RSUs; (c) 37.3 million RSUs converted from former partners’ units in BGC Holdings; (d) 16.3 million RSUs issued in relation to employee compensation; (e) 5.9 million contingent shares to be issued to terminated employees per their respective separation agreements; and (f) 0.8 million contingent shares issued in exchange for acquisition units.
BGC Org Chart (2.24.24) V2.jpg
* Percentage includes restricted shares issued in exchange for former partners’ units in BGC Holdings.
** BGC Partners is a wholly owned subsidiary of BGC Group and consolidated with other wholly and non-wholly owned subsidiaries.
*** Public stockholders includes unrestricted shares owned by employees, executives, and directors due to an inability to track such shares once they leave the Company’s transfer agent.
The diagram reflects the following activity of BGC Class A common stock, BGC Class B common stock, and BGC Holdings partnership unit activity from July 1, 2023 through December 31, 2023 as: (a) 64.0 million shares of BGC Class B common stock issued to Cantor in exchange for Cantor’s 64.0 million BGC Holdings partnership units; (b) 5.8 million shares of restricted BGC Class A common stock issued for limited partnership interests; (c) 15.8 million shares of BGC Class B common stock distributed by Cantor in satisfaction of its remaining deferred share distribution obligations pursuant to distribution rights
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provided to certain current and former partners of Cantor; (d) the restrictions released on 9.3 million shares of BGC Class A common stock; (e) 0.4 million shares of BGC Class A common stock which were converted from 0.4 million shares of Class B common stock distributed by Cantor in satisfaction of its remaining deferred share distribution obligations pursuant to distribution rights provided to certain current and former partners of Cantor; (f) 12.6 million shares of BGC Class A common stock repurchased by us; and (g) 10.4 million shares of BGC Class A common stock issued for vested RSUs; (h) 0.4 million shares of BGC Class A common stock issued for contingent shares issued in exchange for acquisition units; and (i) 0.5 million shares of BGC Class A common stock issued for contingent shares issued in exchange for former partners’ units in BGC Holdings; (j) 1.2 million shares of BGC Class A restricted common stock forfeited by former partners and employees; (k) 2.5 million shares of BGC Class A common stock issued for compensation. No shares of Class A common stock were issued by us under our acquisition shelf 2019 Form S-4 Registration Statement (Registration No. 333-233761) between July 1, 2023 and December 31, 2023; 17.7 million of such shares remain available for issuance by us under such Registration Statement. Also, an immaterial number of shares of Class A common stock were issued by us under our DRIP Registration Statement (Registration No. 333-173109) between July 1, 2023 and December 31, 2023; 9.2 million of such shares remain available for issuance by us under the DRIP Registration Statement.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. These filings are available to the public from the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov.
Our website address is www.bgcg.com. Through our website, we make available, free of charge, the following documents as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC: our Annual Reports on Form 10‑K; our proxy statements for our annual and special stockholder meetings; our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q; our Current Reports on Form 8-K; Forms 3, 4 and 5 and Schedules 13D with respect to our securities filed on behalf of Cantor, CFGM, our directors and our executive officers; and amendments to those documents. Our website also contains additional information with respect to our industry and business. The information contained on, or that may be accessed through, our website is not part of, and is not incorporated into, this Annual Report on Form 10‑K.
ITEM 1A.     RISK FACTORS
Any investment in shares of our Class A common stock, the BGC Group Notes, the BGC Partners Notes, or our other securities or those of BGC Partners involves risks and uncertainties. The following are important risks and uncertainties that could affect our business, but we do not ascribe any particular likelihood or probability to them unless specifically indicated. Before making an investment decision to purchase our securities or those of BGC Partners, you should carefully read and consider all of the risks and uncertainties described below, as well as other information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including “Item 7–Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and related notes included herein. The occurrence of any of the following risks or additional risks and uncertainties that are currently immaterial or unknown could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, liquidity, result of operations, cash flows or prospects.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS
Risks Related to Global Economic and Market Conditions
Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects have been and may continue to be affected both positively and negatively by conditions in the global economy and financial markets generally.
Uncertain market, economic, and geopolitical conditions have in the past adversely affected and may in the future adversely affect our business. Such conditions and uncertainties include fluctuating levels of economic output, historic fluctuating interest rates and the impact on trading volumes, recently volatile interest and inflation rates, employment levels, consumer confidence levels, and fiscal and monetary policy. The economic policies of the current and next administration and Congress, including potential changes in interest rates and existing tax rates as well as potential changes in these factors as a result of the upcoming U.S. Presidential election may further change the regulatory and economic landscape. These conditions may directly and indirectly impact a number of factors in the global markets that may have a positive or negative effect on our operating results, including the levels of trading, investing, and origination activity in the financial markets, the valuations of financial instruments, changes in interest rates, changes in benchmarks, changes in and uncertainty regarding laws and regulations, substantial fluctuations in volume and commissions on securities and derivatives transactions, the absolute and relative level of currency rates and the actual and the perceived quality of issuers, borrowers and investors. For example, the
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actions of the U.S. Federal Reserve and international central banking authorities directly impact our cost of capital and may impact the value of financial instruments we hold. In addition, changes in monetary policy may affect the credit quality of our customers. Changes in domestic and international monetary policy are beyond our control and difficult to predict.
Our revenues and profitability have historically declined and are likely to decline significantly during past and future periods of low trading volume in the financial markets in which we offer our products and services.
The global financial services markets are, by their nature, risky and volatile and are directly affected by many national and international factors that are beyond our control. Although we believe that meaningful interest rates may continue to positively impact trading volumes in many of our product offerings, any one of the following factors have caused and may in the future cause substantial changes in the U.S. and global financial markets, resulting in positive or negative impacts on transactional volume and profitability for our business. These factors include:
volatile global interest rates;
economic and geopolitical conditions and uncertainties in the United States, Europe, Asia and elsewhere in the world, including government deficits, debt and possible defaults, austerity measures, and changes in central bank and/or fiscal policies, including the level and timing of government debt issuances, purchases and outstanding amounts;
possible political turmoil with respect to the U.S. government, the U.K., the EU and/or its member states, Hong Kong, China, Latin America or other major economies around the world;
the effect of Federal Reserve Board and other central banks’ monetary policies, increased capital requirements for banks and other financial institutions, and other regulatory requirements;
terrorism, war and other armed hostilities, such as the wars in Ukraine and Israel and other ongoing conflicts and hostilities in the Middle East, and measures taken in response thereto, including sanctions imposed by governments and related countersanctions;
the impact of short-term or prolonged U.S. government shutdowns, elections or other political events;
inflation and wavering institutional and consumer confidence levels in the economy;
pandemics and other international health emergencies, including the combined impact of COVID-19 with the flu and other seasonal illnesses;
the availability of capital for borrowings and investments by our clients and their customers;
the level and volatility of foreign currency exchange rates and trading in certain equity, debt and commodity markets;
the level and volatility of the difference between the yields on corporate securities and those on related benchmark securities; and
margin requirements, capital requirements, credit availability, global supply chain issues and other liquidity concerns.
Low transaction volumes for any of our brokerage asset classes generally result in reduced revenues. Under these conditions, our profitability is adversely affected. In addition, although less common, some of our transaction revenues are determined on the basis of the value of transactions or on spreads. For these reasons, substantial decreases in trading volume, declining prices, and/or reduced spreads could have material adverse effects on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Downgrades of sovereign credit ratings, sovereign debt crises, or a decrease in the integrity of capital markets may have material adverse effects on the financial markets and general economic conditions, as well as our businesses, financial condition, cash flows, results of operations and prospects.
Any further downgrades of the U.S. sovereign credit rating by one or more of the major credit rating agencies could have material adverse effects on financial markets and economic conditions in the U.S. and throughout the world. This in turn could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, cash flows, results of operations, and prospects. The ultimate impacts of negative credit rating actions with respect to U.S. government obligations, the ultimate impacts on global financial markets and our business, financial condition, cash flows, results of operations, and prospects are unpredictable and may not be immediately apparent. Additionally, the negative impact on economic conditions and global financial markets from further sovereign debt concerns with respect to the U.K., the EU and/or its member states, Japan, China or other major economies could further adversely affect our businesses, financial condition, cash flows, results of operations and prospects. Concerns about the sovereign debt of certain major economies have caused uncertainty and disruption for financial markets
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globally, and continued uncertainties loom over the outcome of various governments’ financial support programs and the possibility that EU member states or other major economies may experience similar financial troubles. Any further downgrades of the long-term sovereign credit rating of the U.S. or additional sovereign debt crises in major economies could cause disruption and volatility of financial markets globally and have material adverse effects on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Actions taken by governments in response to inflation rates may have a material impact on our business.
Both domestic and international markets have recently experienced significant inflationary pressures and inflation rates in the U.S., as well as in other countries in which we operate, are currently expected to continue at elevated levels for at least the near-term. In response, the Federal Reserve in the U.S. and other central banks in various countries have raised, and may again raise, interest rates in response to concerns about inflation, which, coupled with reduced government spending and volatility in financial markets, may have the effect of further increasing economic uncertainty and heightening related risks. Interest rate increases or other government actions taken to reduce inflation could also result in recessionary pressures in many parts of the world. Additionally, these actions have affected FX volumes around the world, causing currency fluctuations and rapid changes in valuations that may make certain strategies less appealing for FX market participants. While higher interest rates have had and are expected to continue to have a positive impact on our revenues, currency fluctuations have affected, and may continue to affect, the reported value of our assets, liabilities, and cash flows.
Risks Related to New Opportunities/Possible Transactions and Hires
If we are unable to identify and successfully exploit new product, service and market opportunities, including through hiring new brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel, our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and prospects could be materially adversely affected.
Because of significant competition in our market, our strategy is to broker more transactions, increase our share of existing markets and seek out new clients and markets through competitive or innovative new product offerings. We may face enhanced risks as these efforts to expand our business result in our transacting with a broader array of clients and expose us to new products and services and markets. Pursuing this strategy may also require significant management attention and hiring expense and potential costs and liability in any litigation or arbitration that may result. We may not be able to attract new clients or brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals or other front-office personnel or successfully enter new markets. If we are unable to identify and successfully exploit new product, service and market opportunities, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.
We may pursue opportunities including new business initiatives, strategic alliances, acquisitions, mergers, investments, dispositions, joint ventures or other growth opportunities or transformational transactions (including hiring new brokers and salespeople), which could present unforeseen integration obstacles or costs and could dilute our stockholders. We may also face competition in our acquisition strategy or new business plans, and such competition may limit such opportunities.
We have explored and continue to explore a wide range of strategic alliances, new business initiatives, mergers, investments, acquisitions and joint ventures with other financial services companies that have interests in related businesses or other strategic opportunities. Such transactions may be necessary in order for us to enter into or develop new products or services or markets, as well as to strengthen our current ones.
These opportunities and activities involve a number of risks and challenges, including:
potential disruption of our ongoing businesses and product, service and market development and distraction of management;
regulatory, financial, and operational risks associated with the launch of new initiatives which could impact the timeline, launch and operation of such initiatives, or which could require significant capital and significant efforts by management, including engaging partners on satisfactory terms and long lead times in order to scale a successful venture;
the expansion of our cybersecurity processes to include new businesses, or the integration of the cybersecurity processes of acquired businesses, including internationally;
increased focus on our Energy and Commodities business, including regulatory, financial, and operational risks associated with these initiatives;
hiring, retaining and integrating personnel in the increasingly competitive marketplace for the most talented producers and managers;
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integrating administrative, operational, financial reporting, internal control, compliance, technology and other systems;
increased scope, geographic diversity and complexity of our operations and, to the extent that we pursue opportunities internationally, exposure to political, economic, legal, regulatory, operational and other risks that are inherent in operating in a foreign country, including risks of possible nationalization and/or foreign ownership restrictions, expropriation, price controls, capital controls, foreign currency fluctuations, regulatory and tax requirements, economic and/or political instability, geographic, time zone, language and cultural differences among personnel in different areas of the world, exchange controls and other restrictive government actions, as well as the outbreak of hostilities;
integrating accounting and financial systems and accounting policies and the related risk of having to restate our historical financial statements;
potential dependence upon, and exposure to liability, loss or reputational damage relating to systems, controls and personnel that are not under our control;
addition of business lines in which we have not previously engaged;
potential unfavorable reactions to our strategy by our customers, counterparties, employees, and investors, or challenges to our strategy by our competitors;
the upfront costs of building technology and establishing infrastructure to establish new business ventures;
conflicts or disagreements between any strategic alliance or joint venture partner and us;
exposure to potential unknown liabilities of any acquired business, strategic alliance or joint venture that are significantly larger than we anticipate at the time of acquisition, and unforeseen increased expenses or delays associated with acquisitions, including costs in excess of the cash transition costs that we estimate at the outset of a transaction;
reduction in availability of financing due to credit ratings downgrades or defaults by us, in connection with these activities;
a significant increase in the level of our indebtedness and adverse effects on our Liquidity in order to generate cash resources that may be required to effect acquisitions;
dilution resulting from any issuances of shares of our Class A common stock in connection with these activities;
a reduction of the diversification of our business resulting from any dispositions;
the cost of rebranding and the impact on our market awareness of dispositions;
litigation or regulatory scrutiny with respect to any such transactions, including any related party aspects of any proposed arrangements;
the impact of any reduction in our asset base resulting from dispositions on our ability to obtain financing or the terms thereof; and
a lag in the realization of financial benefits from these transactions and arrangements.
We face competition for acquisition targets, which may limit our number of acquisition and growth opportunities and may lead to higher acquisition prices or other less favorable terms. As we grow internationally, we may experience additional expenses or obstacles. There can be no assurance that we will be able to identify, acquire or profitably manage additional businesses or integrate successfully any acquired businesses without substantial costs, delays or other operational or financial difficulties.
In addition, the acquisition of regulated firms generally requires the consent of the home jurisdiction regulator in which the target and regulated subsidiaries are domiciled. In certain circumstances, one or more of these regulators may withhold their consent, impose restrictions or make their consent subject to conditions which may result in increased costs or delays.
Any future growth will be partially dependent upon the continued availability of suitable transactional candidates at favorable prices and valuations and upon advantageous terms and conditions, which may not be available to us, as well as sufficient liquidity to fund these transactions. Future transactions and any necessary related financings also may involve significant transaction-related expenses, which include payment of break-up fees, assumption of liabilities, including compensation, severance, lease termination, and other restructuring costs, and transaction and deferred financing costs, among
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others. In addition, there can be no assurance that such transactions will be accretive or generate favorable operating margins. The success of these transactions will also be determined in part by the ongoing performance of the acquired companies and the acceptance of acquired employees of our equity-based compensation structure and other variables which may be different from the existing industry standards or practices at the acquired companies.
We will need to successfully manage the integration of recent and future acquisitions and future growth effectively. Such integration and additional growth may place a significant strain upon our management, administrative, operational, financial reporting, internal control and compliance infrastructure. Our ability to grow depends upon our ability to successfully hire, train, supervise and manage additional employees, expand our management, administrative, operational, financial reporting, compliance and other control systems effectively, allocate our human resources optimally, maintain clear lines of communication between our transactional and management functions and our finance and accounting functions, and manage the pressure on our management, administrative, operational, financial reporting, compliance and other control infrastructure. Additionally, managing future growth may be difficult due to new geographic locations, markets and business lines. We may not realize, or it may take an extended period of time to realize, the full benefits that we anticipate from strategic alliances, acquisitions, joint ventures or other growth opportunities. There can be no assurance that we will be able to accurately anticipate and respond to the changing demands we will face as we integrate recent future acquisitions and continue to expand our operations, and we may not be able to manage growth effectively or to achieve growth at all.
From time to time, we may also seek to dispose of portions of our businesses, or otherwise reduce our ownership, each of which could materially affect our cash flows and results of operations. Dispositions involve significant risks and uncertainties, such as the ability to sell such businesses at satisfactory prices and terms and in a timely manner (including long and costly sales processes and the possibility of lengthy and potentially unsuccessful attempts by a buyer to receive required regulatory approvals,) or at all, disruption to other parts of the business and distraction of management, loss of key employees or customers, and exposure to unanticipated liabilities or ongoing obligations to support the business following such dispositions. In addition, if such dispositions are not completed for any reason, the market price of our Class A common stock may reflect a market assumption that such transactions will occur, and a failure to complete such transactions could result in a decline in the market price of our Class A common stock. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
While we have limited offerings linked to cryptocurrencies, such offerings or any future expansion of such business could expose us to technology, regulatory and financial risks.
While we currently have limited offerings linked to cryptocurrencies in certain jurisdictions, we may expand the types of these offerings, the associated types of cryptocurrencies and the jurisdictions in which these offerings are offered. Specifically, BGC provides its cryptocurrency offerings through Lucera by providing connectivity, hosting and trading platforms and through kACE2, its analytics, pricing and distribution software.
The technology underlying cryptocurrencies and other similar digital assets is evolving at a rapid pace and may be vulnerable to cyberattacks or have other inherent weaknesses that are not yet apparent. There is a high degree of fraud, theft, cyberattacks and other forms of risk in the cryptocurrency space.
In addition, cryptocurrency markets experienced significant price fluctuations in recent years, and may continue to experience periods of extreme volatility again in the future. Recently, several entities in the digital asset industry have been, and may continue to be negatively affected, including to the point of insolvency. If such events impact our cryptocurrency offerings, we may experience material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects in the future.
In the U.S. the SEC, CFTC, state and federal agencies are reviewing virtual currency businesses and have and or may enact regulations that restrict business activities and or require additional licenses to conduct certain businesses. While the SEC has recently approved the listing and trading of a number of spot bitcoin ETPs, existing and future regulations may negatively impact our ability to offer different products in different regions and/or negatively impact our ability to deal with certain customers depending on where they are located. If licenses are required, it may take a considerable amount of time to obtain the necessary approvals from the respective regimes. Any of these factors could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects in the future.
Risks Related to Liquidity, Funding and Indebtedness
We have debt, which could adversely affect our ability to raise additional capital and obtain or maintain favorable credit ratings, limit our ability to react to changes in the economy or our business, expose us to interest rate risk, and prevent us from meeting our obligations under our indebtedness.
Our indebtedness, which at December 31, 2023 was $1,183.5 million, may have important, adverse consequences to us and our investors, including:
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it may limit our ability to borrow money, dispose of assets or sell equity to fund our working capital, capital expenditures, dividend payments, debt service, strategic initiatives or other obligations or purposes;
it may limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in the economy, the markets, regulatory requirements, our operations or business;
our financial leverage may be higher than some of our competitors, which may place us at a competitive disadvantage;
it may make us more vulnerable to downturns in the economy or our business;
it may require a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to make interest payments;
it may make it more difficult for us to satisfy other obligations;
it may increase the risk of a future downgrade of our credit ratings or otherwise impact our ability to obtain or maintain investment-grade credit ratings, which could increase future debt costs and limit the future availability of debt financing;
we may not be able to borrow additional funds or refinance existing debt as needed or take advantage of business opportunities as they arise, pay cash dividends or repurchase shares of our Class A common stock; and
there would be a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects if we are unable to service our indebtedness or obtain additional financing or refinance our existing debt on terms acceptable to us.
To the extent that we incur additional indebtedness or seek to refinance our existing debt, the risks described above could increase. In addition, our actual cash requirements in the future may be greater than expected and may impact the rate at which we make payments of obligations or incur additional obligations. Our cash flow from operations may not be sufficient to service our outstanding debt or to repay outstanding debt as it becomes due, and we may not be able to borrow money, dispose of assets or otherwise raise funds on acceptable terms, or at all, to service or refinance our debt.
Some of our borrowings have variable interest rates. As a result, increases in market interest rates have had and may continue to have a material adverse effect on our interest expense.
A continued rise in interest rates could further increase our cost of funds, which could reduce our net income. In an effort to limit our exposure to interest rate fluctuations, we may rely on interest rate hedging or other interest rate risk management activities. These activities may limit our ability to participate in the benefits of lower interest rates with respect to the hedged borrowings. Adverse developments resulting from changes in interest rates or hedging transactions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Some of our borrowings will mature in the near future. The BGC Group 3.750% Senior Notes and BGC Partners 3.750% Senior Notes each mature on October 1, 2024, and collectively have an outstanding aggregate principal amount of $300.0 million; the BGC Group 4.375% Senior Notes and BGC Partners 4.375% Senior Notes each mature on December 15, 2025, and collectively have an outstanding aggregate principal amount of $300.0 million; and the BGC Group 8.000% Senior Notes and the BGC Partners 8.000% Senior Notes each mature on May 25, 2028, and collectively have an outstanding aggregate principal amount of $350.0 million. Our ability to meet our payment and other obligations under our debt depends on our ability to generate and maintain significant cash flow in the near future or to access alternate sources of liquidity. This, to some extent, is subject to general economic, financial, competitive, legislative and regulatory factors as well as other factors that are beyond our control. We cannot assure you that our business will generate cash flow from operations, or that additional capital will be available to us, in an amount sufficient to enable us to meet our payment obligations under our borrowings and to fund other liquidity needs. If we are not able to generate sufficient cash flow to service our debt obligations and our unable to refinance our obligations on terms or at interest rates acceptable to us at all, we may need to sell assets, reduce or delay capital investments, or seek to raise additional capital. If we are unable to implement one or more of these alternatives, our cash flow may be significantly reduced, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We are dependent upon availability of adequate funding and liquidity to meet our clearing margin requirements, among other financial needs. Clearing margin is the amount of cash, guarantees or similar collateral that we must provide or deposit with our third-party clearing organizations in support of our obligations under contractual clearing arrangements with these organizations. Historically, these needs have been satisfied from internally generated funds and proceeds from debt and equity financings. We have also relied on arrangements with Cantor to clear certain of our transactions under the clearing agreement we entered into with Cantor in November 2008, which was amended in June 2020. Although we have historically been able to raise debt on acceptable terms, deterioration of the world’s credit markets could make it more difficult for us to
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refinance or replace such indebtedness in a timely manner or on acceptable terms. Further, if for any reason we need to raise additional funds, including in order to meet regulatory capital requirements and/or clearing margin requirements arising from growth in our brokerage business, to complete acquisitions or otherwise, we may not be able to obtain additional financing when needed. If we cannot raise additional funds on acceptable terms, we may not be able to develop or enhance our business, take advantage of future growth opportunities or respond to competitive pressure or unanticipated requirements.
Our Revolving Credit Agreement contains restrictions that may limit our flexibility in operating our business.
Our Revolving Credit Agreement contains covenants that could impose operating and financial restrictions on us, including restrictions on our ability to, among other things and subject to certain exceptions:
create liens on certain assets;
incur additional debt;
make significant investments and acquisitions;
consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets;
dispose of certain assets;
pay additional dividends on or make additional distributions in respect of our capital stock or make restricted payments;
repurchase shares of our Class A common stock;
enter into certain transactions with our affiliates; and
place restrictions on certain distributions from subsidiaries.
Indebtedness that we may enter into in the future, if any, could also contain similar or additional covenants or restrictions. Any of these restrictions could limit our ability to adequately plan for or react to market conditions and could otherwise restrict certain of our corporate activities. Any material failure to comply with these covenants could result in a default under the Revolving Credit Agreement as well as instruments governing our future indebtedness. Upon a material default, unless such default were cured by us or waived by lenders in accordance with the Revolving Credit Agreement, the lenders under such agreement could elect to invoke various remedies under the agreement, including potentially accelerating the payment of unpaid principal and interest, terminating their commitments or, however unlikely, potentially forcing us into bankruptcy or liquidation. In addition, a default or acceleration under such agreement could trigger a cross default under other agreements, including potential future debt arrangements. Although we believe that our operating results will be more than sufficient to meet all of these obligations, including potential future indebtedness, no assurance can be given that our operating results will be sufficient to service our indebtedness or to fund all of our other expenditures or to obtain additional or replacement financing on a timely basis and on reasonable terms in order to meet these requirements when due.
Credit ratings downgrades could adversely affect our cost of capital and the availability of debt financing.
Our credit ratings and associated outlooks are critical to our reputation and operational and financial success. Our credit ratings and associated outlooks are influenced by a number of factors, including: operating environment, regulatory environment, earnings and profitability trends, the rating agencies’ view of our funding and liquidity management practices, balance sheet size/composition and resulting leverage, cash flow coverage of interest, composition and size of the capital base, available liquidity, outstanding borrowing levels, our competitive position in the industry, our relationships in the industry, our relationship with Cantor, acquisitions or dispositions of assets and other matters. A credit rating and/or the associated outlook can be revised upward or downward at any time by a rating agency if such rating agency decides that circumstances of that company or related companies warrant such a change. Any adverse ratings change or a downgrade in the credit ratings of BGC, Cantor or any of their other affiliates, and/or the associated ratings outlooks could adversely affect the availability of debt financing to us on acceptable terms, as well as the cost and other terms upon which we may obtain any such financing. In addition, our credit ratings and associated outlooks may be important to clients of ours in certain markets and in certain transactions. A company’s contractual counterparties may, in certain circumstances, demand collateral in the event of a credit ratings or outlook downgrade of that company. Further, interest rates payable on our future or our and BGC Partners’ currently outstanding debt may increase in the event that our ratings decline; for example, under the terms of our and BGC Partners’ outstanding senior notes, a downgrade in our credit ratings by both Fitch Ratings Inc. and Standard & Poor’s would lead to an increase in the interest rates payable on those notes.
As of December 31, 2023, BGC Group’s public long-term credit ratings were BBB- from Fitch Ratings Inc. and S&P Global Ratings, BBB from Kroll Bond Rating Agency and BBB+ from Japan Credit Rating Agency, Ltd. and the associated outlooks on all the ratings were stable. No assurance can be given that the credit ratings will remain unchanged in the future.
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Any negative change to our credit ratings and associated outlooks may restrict our ability to raise additional capital or refinance debt on favorable terms, and any resulting impacts on our funding access, liquidity or perceived creditworthiness among our clients, counterparties, lenders, investors, or other market participants could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. See “—Credit Risk— Credit ratings downgrades or defaults by us, Cantor or another large financial institution could adversely affect us or financial markets generally.”
Our acquisitions may require significant cash resources and may lead to a significant increase in the level of our indebtedness.
We may enter into short- or long-term financing arrangements in connection with acquisitions which may occur from time to time. In addition, we may incur substantial non-recurring transaction costs, including break-up fees, and assume new liabilities and expenses. The increased level of our consolidated indebtedness in connection with potential acquisitions may restrict our ability to raise additional capital on favorable terms, and such leverage, and any resulting liquidity or credit issues, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We may incur substantially more debt or take other actions which would intensify the risks discussed herein.
We may incur substantial additional debt in the future, some of which may be secured debt. We are not restricted under the terms of our existing debt arrangements and instruments, including the indentures governing the BGC Group 3.750% Senior Notes, the BGC Group 4.375% Senior Notes, and the BGC Group 8.000% Senior Notes, or the indentures governing the BGC Partners senior notes, from incurring additional debt, securing existing or future debt (with certain exceptions, including to the extent already secured), recapitalizing our debt or taking a number of other actions that are not limited by the terms of our debt instruments that could have the effect of exacerbating the risks described herein.
Risks Related to Our Senior Notes
We may not have the funds necessary to repurchase the BGC Group 3.750% Senior Notes, the BGC Group 4.375% Senior Notes, and the BGC Group 8.000% Senior Notes, or the BGC Partners senior notes upon a change of control triggering event as required by the indentures governing these notes.
Upon the occurrence of a “change of control triggering event” (as defined in the indentures governing the BGC Group 3.750% Senior Notes, the BGC Group 4.375% Senior Notes, and the BGC Group 8.000% Senior Notes, and the indentures governing the BGC Partners senior notes), unless we have exercised our right to redeem such notes, holders of the notes will have the right to require us to repurchase all or any part of their notes at a price in cash equal to 101% of the then-outstanding aggregate principal amount of the notes repurchased plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any. There can be no assurance that we would have sufficient, readily available financial resources, or would be able to arrange financing, to repurchase the BGC Group 3.750% Senior Notes, the BGC Group 4.375% Senior Notes, and the BGC Group 8.000% Senior Notes, or the BGC Partners senior notes upon a “change of control triggering event.” A failure by us to repurchase the notes when required would result in an event of default with respect to the notes. In addition, such failure may also constitute an event of default and result in the effective acceleration of the maturity of our other then-existing indebtedness.
The requirement to offer to repurchase the BGC Group 3.750% Senior Notes, the BGC Group 4.375% Senior Notes, and the BGC Group 8.000% Senior Notes, or the BGC Partners senior notes upon a “change of control triggering event” may delay or prevent an otherwise beneficial takeover attempt of us.
The requirement to offer to repurchase the BGC Group 3.750% Senior Notes, the BGC Group 4.375% Senior Notes, and the BGC Group 8.000% Senior Notes, or the BGC Partners senior notes upon a “change of control triggering event” may in certain circumstances delay or prevent a takeover of us and/or the removal of incumbent management that might otherwise be beneficial to investors in our Class A common stock.
Risks Related to the Geographic Locations of Our Business
Our business is geographically concentrated and could be significantly affected by any adverse change in the regions in which we operate.
Historically, our business operations have been substantially located in the U.S. and the U.K. While we are expanding our business to new geographic areas, we are still highly concentrated in these areas. Because we derived approximately 35.8% and approximately 32.0% of our total revenues on a consolidated basis for the year ended December 31, 2023 from our operations in the U.K. and the U.S., respectively, our business is exposed to adverse regulatory and competitive changes, economic downturns and changes in political conditions in these countries. If we are unable to identify and successfully manage
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or mitigate these risks, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.
The U.K. exit from the EU could materially adversely impact our customers, counterparties, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
On January 1, 2021, the U.K. formally left the EU and U.K.-EU trade became subject to a new agreement that was concluded in December of 2020. The exit from the EU is commonly referred to as Brexit. Financial services fall outside of the scope of this trade agreement. Instead, the relationship will largely be determined by a series of “equivalence decisions,” each of which would grant mutual market access for a limited subset of financial services where either party finds the other party has a regulatory regime that achieves similar outcomes to its own. It is currently unknown if or when equivalence decisions will be taken. In March 2021, the U.K. and EU agreed a Memorandum of Understanding on Financial Services Regulatory Cooperation which creates a structure for dialogue but does not include commitments on equivalence.
We implemented plans to ensure continuity of service in Europe and continue to have regulated offices in place in many of the major European markets. As part of our ongoing Brexit strategy, ownership of BGC Madrid, Copenhagen and Frankfurt & GFI Paris, Madrid and Dublin branches was transferred to Aurel BGC SAS (a French-based operation and therefore based in the EU) in July 2020. We have been generally increasing our footprint in the EU which includes the establishment of a new branch office of Aurel BGC SAS in Milan and a new office in Monaco under a new local Monaco subsidiary.
Regardless of these and other mitigating measures, our European headquarters and largest operations are in London, and market access risks and uncertainties have had and could continue to have a material adverse effect on our customers, counterparties, business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Furthermore, in the future the U.K. and EU’s regulation may diverge, which could disrupt and increase the costs of our operations, and result in a loss of existing levels of cross-border market access.
Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property
We may not be able to protect our intellectual property rights or may be prevented from using intellectual property necessary for our business.
Our success is dependent, in part, upon our intellectual property, including our proprietary technology. We rely primarily on trade secret, contract, patent, copyright, and trademark law in the U.S. and other jurisdictions as well as confidentiality procedures and contractual provisions to establish and protect our intellectual property rights to proprietary technologies, products, services or methods, and our brands. For example, we regularly file patent applications to protect inventions arising from our research and development, and we are currently pursuing patent applications around the world. We also control access to our proprietary technology and enter into confidentiality and invention assignment agreements with our employees and consultants and confidentiality agreements with other third parties. Protecting our intellectual property rights is costly and time consuming.
Unauthorized use of our intellectual property could make it more expensive to do business and harm our operating results. We cannot ensure that our intellectual property rights are sufficient to protect our competitive advantages or that any particular patent, copyright or trademark is valid and enforceable, and all patents ultimately expire. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries may not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws in the U.S., or at all. Any significant impairment of our intellectual property rights could harm our business or our ability to compete.
Many companies, including those in the computer and financial services industries own large numbers of patents, copyrights, and trademarks and sometimes file lawsuits based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. In addition, there has been a proliferation of patents applicable to these industries and a substantial increase in the number of such patent applications filed. Under current law, U.S. patent applications typically remain secret for 18 months or, in some cases, until a patent is issued. Because of technological changes in these industries, patent coverage, and the issuance of new patents, it is possible certain components of our products and services may unknowingly infringe existing patents or other intellectual property rights of others. Although we have taken steps to protect ourselves, there can be no assurance that we will be aware of all patents, copyrights or trademarks that may pose a risk of infringement by our products and services. Generally, it is not economically practicable to determine in advance whether our products or services may infringe the present or future rights of others.
Accordingly, we may face claims of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights that could interfere with our ability to use intellectual property or technology that is material to our business. In addition, restrictions on the distribution of some of the market data generated by our brokerage desks could limit the comprehensiveness and quality of the
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data we are able to distribute or sell. The number of such third-party claims may grow. Our technologies may not be able to withstand such third-party claims or rights against their use.
We may have to rely on litigation to enforce our intellectual property rights, protect our trade secrets, determine the validity and scope of the rights of others or defend against claims of infringement or invalidity. Any such claims or litigation, whether successful or unsuccessful, could result in substantial costs, and the diversion of resources and the attention of management, any of which could materially negatively affect our business. Responding to these claims could also require us to enter into royalty or licensing agreements with the third parties claiming infringement, stop selling or redesign affected products or services or pay damages on our own behalf or to satisfy indemnification commitments with our customers. Such royalty or licensing agreements, if available, may not be available on terms acceptable to us, and may negatively affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
If our licenses or services from third parties are terminated or adversely changed or amended or contain material defects or errors, or if any of these third parties were to cease doing business or if products or services offered by third parties were to contain material defects or errors, our ability to operate our business may be materially adversely affected.
We license databases, software and services from third parties, much of which is integral to our systems and our business. The licenses are terminable if we breach or have been perceived to have breached our obligations under the license agreements. If any material licenses were terminated or adversely changed or amended, if any of these third parties were to cease doing business or if any licensed software or databases licensed by these third parties were to contain material defects or errors, we may be forced to spend significant time and money to replace the licensed software and databases, and our ability to operate our business may be materially adversely affected. Further, any errors or defects in third-party services or products (including hardware, software, databases, cloud computing and other platforms and systems) or in services or products that we develop ourselves, could result in errors in, or a failure of our services or products, which could harm our business. Although we take steps to locate replacements, there can be no assurance that the necessary replacements will be available on acceptable terms, if at all. There can be no assurance that we will have an ongoing license to use all intellectual property which our systems require, the failure of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Risks Related to Our IT Systems and Cybersecurity
Defects or disruptions in our technology or services could diminish demand for our products and services and subject us to liability.
Because our technology, products and services are complex and use or incorporate a variety of computer hardware, software and databases, both developed in-house and acquired from third party vendors, our technology, products and services may have errors or defects. Errors and defects could result in unanticipated downtime or failure and could cause financial loss and harm to our reputation and our business. We have from time to time found defects and errors in our technology, products and service and defects and errors in our technology, products or services may be detected in the future. In addition, our customers may use our technology, products and services in unanticipated ways that may cause a disruption for other customers. As we acquire companies, we may encounter difficulty in integrating the acquired technologies, products and services, and maintaining the quality standards that are consistent with our technology, products and services. Since our customers use our technology, products and services for important aspects of their business and for financial transactions, any errors, defects, or disruptions in such technology, products and services or other performance problems with our technology, products and services could subject our customers to harm and hurt our reputation.
Malicious cyber-attacks and other adverse events could disrupt our business, result in the disclosure of confidential information, damage our reputation and cause losses or regulatory penalties.
Our businesses require us to process and monitor, on a daily basis, a very large number of transactions, many of which are highly complex, across numerous and diverse markets in many currencies. Developing and maintaining our operational systems and infrastructure are challenging, particularly as a result of us and our clients entering into new businesses, jurisdictions and regulatory regimes, rapidly evolving legal and regulatory requirements and technological shifts. Our financial, accounting, data processing or other operating and compliance systems and facilities may fail to operate properly or become disabled as a result of events that are wholly or partially beyond our control, including malicious cyber-attacks or other adverse events, which may adversely affect our ability to process these transactions or provide services or products.
In addition, our operations rely on the secure processing, storage and transmission of confidential and other information on our computer systems and networks. Although we take protective measures, such as software programs, firewalls and similar technology, to maintain the confidentiality, integrity and availability of our and our customers’
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information, and endeavor to modify these protective measures as circumstances warrant, the nature of cyber threats continues to evolve. As a result, our computer systems, software and networks may be vulnerable to unauthorized access, loss or destruction of data (including confidential customer information), account takeovers, unavailability or disruption of service, computer viruses, acts of vandalism, or other malicious code, ransomware, hacking, phishing and other cyber-attacks and other adverse events that could have an adverse security impact. Additionally, we may be vulnerable to cybersecurity attacks utilizing emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence. Despite the defensive measures we have taken, these threats may come from external forces, such as governments, nation-state actors, organized crime, hackers, and other third parties, or may originate internally from within us. Given the high volume of transactions involved in our business, certain errors may be repeated or compounded before they are discovered and rectified.
We also face the risk of operational disruption, failure, termination or capacity constraints of any of the third parties that facilitate our business activities, including vendors, customers, counterparties, exchanges, clearing agents, clearinghouses or other financial intermediaries. Such parties could also be the source of a cyber-attack on or breach of our operational systems, network, data or infrastructure. Malicious actors may also attempt to compromise or induce our employees, clients or other users of our systems to disclose sensitive information or provide access to our data, and these types of risks may be difficult to detect or prevent.
There have been an increasing number of ransomware, hacking, phishing and other cyber-attacks in recent years in various industries, including ours, and cybersecurity risk management has been the subject of increasing focus by our regulators. Like other companies, we have on occasion experienced, and may continue to experience, threats to our systems, including viruses, phishing and other cyber-attacks. The number and complexity of these threats continue to increase over time. The techniques used in these attacks are increasingly sophisticated, change frequently and are often not recognized until launched. If one or more cyber-attacks occur, it could potentially jeopardize the confidential, proprietary and other information processed and stored in, and transmitted through, our computer systems and networks, or otherwise cause interruptions or malfunctions in our, as well as our customers’ or other third parties’ operations, which could result in reputational damage, financial losses, customer dissatisfaction and/or regulatory penalties, which may not in all cases be covered by insurance. If an actual, threatened or perceived cyber-attack or breach of our security occurs, our clients could lose confidence in our platforms and solutions, security measures and reliability, which would materially harm our ability to retain existing clients and gain new clients. As a result of any such attack or breach, we may be required to expend significant resources to repair system, network or infrastructure damage and to protect against the threat of future cyber-attacks or security breaches. We could also face litigation or other claims from impacted individuals as well as substantial regulatory sanctions or fines.
The extent of a particular cyber-attack and the steps that we may need to take to investigate the attack may not be immediately clear, and it may take a significant amount of time before such an investigation can be completed and full and reliable information about the attack is known. While such an investigation is ongoing, we may not necessarily know the full extent of the harm caused by the cyber-attack, and any resulting damage may continue to spread. Furthermore, it may not be clear how best to contain and remediate the harm caused by the cyber-attack, and certain errors or actions could be repeated or compounded before they are discovered and remediated. Any or all of these factors could further increase the costs and consequences of a cyber-attack.
Our regulators in recent years have increased their examination and enforcement focus on all matters of our business, especially matters relating to cybersecurity threats, including the assessment of firms’ vulnerability to cyber-attacks. In particular, regulatory concerns have been raised about firms establishing effective cybersecurity governance and risk management policies, practices and procedures that enable the identification of risks, testing and monitoring of the effectiveness of such procedures and adaptation to address any weaknesses; protecting firm networks and information; data loss prevention, identifying and addressing risk associated with remote access to client information and fund transfer requests; identifying and addressing risks associated with customers’ business partners, counterparties, vendors, and other third parties, including exchanges and clearing organizations; preventing and detecting unauthorized access or activities; adopting effective mitigation and business continuity plans to timely and effectively address the impact of cybersecurity breaches; and establishing protocols for reporting cybersecurity incidents. As we enter new jurisdictions or different product area verticals, we may be subject to new areas of risk or to cyber-attacks in areas in which we have less familiarity and tools. A technological breakdown could also interfere with our ability to comply with financial reporting requirements. While any insurance that we may have that covers a specific cybersecurity incident may help to prevent the realization of a significant loss from the incident, it would not protect us from the effects of adverse regulatory actions that may result from the incident or a finding that we had inadequate cybersecurity controls, including the reputational harm that could result from such regulatory actions.
Additionally, data privacy is subject to frequently changing rules and regulations in countries where we do business. Rights in relation to an individual’s personal data in the EU and U.K. are governed respectively by the GDPR in the EU and the equivalent Data Protection Act 2018 in the U.K. We are subject compliance obligations in relation to such personal data and the possibility of significant financial penalties for non-compliance. We are also subject to certain U.S. federal and state laws governing the protection of personal data. These laws and regulations are increasing in complexity and number. In addition to
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the increased cost of compliance, our failure to successfully implement or comply with appropriate processes to adhere to the GDPR and other laws and regulations relating to personal data could result in substantial financial penalties for non-compliance, expose us to litigation risk and harm our reputation.
The SEC recently adopted new rules that state that, as a public company, we are required to disclose certain of our processes that relate to cybersecurity and to disclose information relating to material cyber-attacks or other information security breaches. While we view cybersecurity as a top priority, developing and maintaining our operational systems and infrastructure is challenging, particularly as a result of rapidly evolving legal and regulatory requirements and technological shifts. Our financial, accounting, data processing or other operating and compliance systems and facilities may fail to operate properly or become disabled as a result of events that are wholly or partially beyond our control, such as a malicious cyber-attack or other adverse events, which may adversely affect our ability to provide services. Any such cyber incidents involving our computer systems and networks, or those of third parties important to our business, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We may use artificial intelligence in our business, and challenges with properly managing its use could result in competitive harm, regulatory action, legal liability and brand or reputational harm.
We are developing and may use artificial intelligence, including, without limitation, machine learning and generative artificial intelligence (collectively, “AI”) in our business and integrate AI into our platforms, products, offerings and services. Such use may present legal, regulatory and other challenges that could subject us to competitive harm, regulatory action, legal liability and brand or reputational harm. If the output of any AI integrated into our platforms, products, offerings or services are or alleged to be deficient, inaccurate, infringing, violative of third-party rights or biased, our business, financial condition, and results of operations may be adversely affected.
Our success and ability to remain competitive in the industry in which we operate requires adapting to technological developments and evolving industry standards, including in the field of AI. Our competitors or other third parties may incorporate AI into their products or services more quickly or more successfully than us, which could make our products and services obsolete, impair our ability to compete effectively and adversely affect our business. Moreover, use of third-party AI tools could lead to the inadvertent disclosure of confidential and proprietary information, which could put us at a competitive disadvantage and adversely affect our proprietary rights, business and financial condition.
As AI capabilities improve and are increasingly adopted, we may also become more vulnerable to cybersecurity attacks that use AI. Such cybersecurity attacks could compromise our intellectual property and other sensitive information, be costly to remediate and cause significant damage to our business, reputation and operations.
Risks Relating to Our Key Personnel and Employee Turnover
The loss of one or more of our key executives, the development of future talent and the ability of certain key employees to devote adequate time and attention to us are a key part of the success of our business, and failure to continue to employ and have the benefit of these executives may adversely affect our business and prospects.
Our people are our most important resource. We must retain the services of our key employees and strategically recruit and hire new talented employees to attract customer transactions. Further, as we diversify into future business lines or geographic regions, hiring and engagement of effective management in these areas will impact our future success. See “Item 1-Business-Human Capital Management.” If our retention efforts are not successful or our turnover rate increases in the future, our business, results of operations and financial condition could be materially adversely affected.
Effective succession planning is also important to our long-term success. Failure to transition smoothly and effectively transfer knowledge to future executive officers and key employees could hinder our strategic planning and execution. From time to time, senior management, outside directors or other key employees may leave our Company or be absent due to illness or other factors. While we strive to reduce the negative impact of such changes, losing certain key employees could result in significant disruptions to our operations. Hiring, training, and successfully integrating replacement critical personnel is time consuming and, if unsuccessful could disrupt our operations, and as a result could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Howard W. Lutnick, who serves as our Chief Executive Officer and as Chairman of us and Executive Chairman of Newmark, is also the Chairman of the Board, President and Chief Executive Officer of Cantor and Chairman, Chief Executive Officer, President, director and sole shareholder of CFGM, the managing general partner of Cantor. Stephen M. Merkel, our Executive Vice President and General Counsel, is employed as Executive Managing Director, General Counsel and Secretary of Cantor and Executive Vice President and Chief Legal Officer of Newmark. In addition, Messrs. Lutnick and Merkel also hold offices at various other affiliates of Cantor. These key employees are not subject to employment agreements with us or any of our subsidiaries.
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Currently, Mr. Lutnick expects to spend approximately 50% of his working time and Mr. Merkel expects to spend approximately 35% of his working time on our matters. These percentages may vary depending on business developments, strategic initiatives or acquisition activity at us or Newmark or Cantor or any of our or their other affiliates, including SPACs. As a result, these key employees dedicate only a portion of their professional efforts to our business and operations, and there is no contractual obligation for them to spend a specific amount of their time with us and/or Newmark or Cantor and their respective affiliates. These key employees may not be able to dedicate adequate time and attention to our business and operations, and we could experience an adverse effect on our operations due to the demands placed on these members of our management team by their other professional obligations. In addition, these key employees’ other responsibilities could cause conflicts of interest with us. Should Mr. Lutnick or our other most senior executives leave or otherwise become unavailable to render services to us, their loss could disrupt our operations, adversely impact employee retention and morale, and seriously harm our business.
We may be unable to enforce post-employment restrictive covenants applicable to our employees.
Certain of our key employees and officers are subject to post-employment restrictive covenants, including non-competition agreements, in connection with their employment agreements. While we have had success in responding to challenges to certain of our non-compete provisions, there can be no assurance that our non-competition agreements will be found enforceable if challenged in certain states, including states that generally do not enforce post-employment restrictive covenants. In 2023, the Federal Trade Commission proposed a rule that would render non-competition clauses unenforceable in certain situations, and is expected to vote on its proposed rule in April of this year. If such a rule were passed (in any form) and upheld by the courts, it could have a material adverse impact on any applicable post-employment restrictive covenants currently in place. Additionally, the Newmark Holdings limited partnership agreements, to the extent that our executive officers and employees continue to hold Newmark Holdings limited partnership units, which include non-competition and other arrangements applicable to our key employees who are limited partners of Newmark Holdings, may not prevent our key employees, including Messrs. Lutnick and Merkel, whose employment by Cantor is not subject to these provisions in the limited partnership agreements, from resigning or competing against us.
In addition, our success has largely been dependent on the efforts of Mr. Lutnick and other executive officers. Should Mr. Lutnick or our other most senior executives leave or otherwise become unavailable to render services to us, their loss could disrupt our operations, adversely impact employee retention and morale, and seriously harm our business.
Should any of our key employees join an existing competitor, form a competing company, offer services to Cantor or any affiliates that compete with our products, services or otherwise leave us, some of our customers could choose to use the services of that competitor or another competitor instead of our services, which could adversely affect our revenues and as a result could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Risks Related to Internal Controls
If we fail to implement and maintain an effective internal control environment, our operations, reputation and stock price could suffer, we may need to restate our financial statements, and we may be delayed or prevented from accessing the capital markets.
As a public company, we are required, under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, to furnish a report by management on, among other things, the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. This assessment is required to include disclosure of any material weaknesses identified by our management in our key internal controls over financial reporting. A material weakness is a control deficiency or combination of control deficiencies that results in more than a remote likelihood that a material misstatement of annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected. To ensure compliance with Section 404, we will continue to evaluate our key internal controls over financial reporting, including with respect to acquisitions.
Internal controls over financial reporting, no matter how well designed, have inherent limitations. Therefore, internal controls determined to be effective can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to financial statement preparation and may not prevent or detect all misstatements. Due to the inherent limitations in all control systems, no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that all control issues and instances of fraud, if any, have been detected. These inherent limitations include the realities that judgments in decision-making can be faulty, and that breakdowns can occur because of simple error or mistake. Additionally, controls can be circumvented by the individual acts of some persons, by collusion of two or more people or by management override of the controls. Moreover, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate due to changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate. As such, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, which may have a material adverse effect on our reputation and stock price.
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Our ability to identify and remediate any material weaknesses in our internal controls over financial reporting could affect our ability to prepare financial reports in a timely manner, control our policies, procedures, operations and assets, assess and manage our operational, regulatory and financial risks, and integrate our acquired businesses. Similarly, we need to effectively manage any growth that we achieve in such a way as to ensure continuing compliance with all applicable control, financial reporting and legal and regulatory requirements. Any material failure to ensure full compliance with control and financial reporting requirements could result in restatement of our financial statements, delay or prevent us from accessing the capital markets and harm our reputation and/or the market price for our Class A common stock.
Risks Related to Seasonality
The financial markets in which we operate are generally affected by seasonality, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations in a given period.
Traditionally, the financial markets around the world experience lower volume during the summer and at the end of the year due to a general slowdown in the business environment around holiday seasons, and, therefore, our transaction volume levels may decrease during those periods. The timing of local holidays also affects transaction volumes. These factors could have a material effect on our results of operations in any given period.
The seasonality of our business makes it difficult to determine during the course of the year whether planned results will be achieved and to adjust to changes in expectations. To the extent that we are not able to identify and adjust for changes in expectations or we are confronted with negative conditions that inordinately impact seasonal norms, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.
Risks Related to Regulatory and Legal Compliance
The financial services industry in general faces potential regulatory, litigation and/or criminal risks that may result in damages or fines or other penalties as well as costs, and we may face damage to our professional reputation and legal liability if our products and services are not regarded as satisfactory, our employees do not adhere to all applicable legal and professional standards, or for other reasons, all of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Many aspects of our current business involve substantial risks of liability. In the normal course of business, we have been a party to investigations, administrative proceedings, lawsuits, arbitrations, and other actions involving primarily claims for damages. In certain circumstances, we could also face potential criminal investigations, enforcement actions or liability, including fines or other penalties. Examinations, inspections, regulatory inquiries and subpoenas or other requests for information or testimony may cause us to incur significant expenses, including fees for legal representation and other professional advisors and costs associated with document production and remediation efforts. Such regulatory, legal, or other actions may also be directed at certain executives or employees who may be critical to our business or to particular brokerage desks. The risks associated with such matters often may be difficult to assess or quantify, and their existence and magnitude often remain unknown for substantial periods of time. The expansion of our businesses, including into new areas, imposes additional risks of liability.
A settlement of, or judgment related to, any such matters could result in regulatory, civil or criminal liability, fines, penalties, restrictions or limitations on our operations and activities and other sanctions and could otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects. Any such action could also cause us significant reputational harm, which, in turn, could seriously harm us. In addition, regardless of the outcome of such matters, we may incur significant legal and other costs, including substantial management time, dealing with such matters, even if we are not a party to the litigation or a target of the inquiry.
We depend to a large extent on our relationships with our customers and our reputation for integrity and high-caliber professional services to attract and retain customers. We are subject to the risk of failure of our employees to comply with applicable laws, rules and regulations or to be adequately supervised by their managers, and to the extent that such individuals do not meet these requirements, we may be subject to the risk of fines or other penalties as well as reputational risk. It is not always possible to deter and detect employee misconduct or fraud. While we have various supervisory systems and compliance processes and procedures in place, and seek to mitigate applicable risks, the precautions we take to deter and detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in all cases. As a result, if our customers are not satisfied with our products or services, or our employees do not adhere to all applicable legal and professional standards, such matters may be more damaging to our business than to other types of businesses. Significant regulatory action or substantial legal liability against us could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, or cause significant reputational damage to us, which could seriously harm us.
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We are subject to regulatory capital requirements on our regulated business, and a significant operating loss or any extraordinary charge against capital could materially adversely affect our ability to expand or, depending upon the magnitude of the loss or charge, even to maintain the current level of our business.
Many aspects of our business, like those of other financial services firms, are subject to significant capital requirements. In the U.S., the SEC, FINRA, the CFTC, the NFA and various other regulatory bodies have stringent provisions with respect to capital applicable to the operation of brokerage firms, which vary depending upon the nature and extent of these entities’ activities. Four of our subsidiaries, BGCF, GFI Securities LLC, Fenics Execution LLC and Mint Brokers are registered with the SEC and subject to the Uniform Net Capital Requirements. As an FCM, Mint Brokers is also subject to CFTC capital requirements. BGCF is also a member of the FICC, which imposes capital requirements on its members. These entities are subject to SEC, FINRA, CFTC and NFA net capital requirements. In addition, our SEFs, BGC Derivative Markets and GFI Swaps Exchange, are required to maintain financial resources to cover operating costs for at least one year, keeping at least enough cash or highly liquid securities to cover six months’ operating costs. On January 22, 2024, FMX received approval from the CFTC to operate an exchange for U.S. Treasury and SOFR futures. The launch and operation of FMX may continue to require regulatory approval which could subject us to additional costs or obstacles.
Our international operations are also subject to capital requirements in their local jurisdiction. BGC Brokers L.P., GFI Brokers Limited, and GFI Securities Limited, which are based in the U.K., are currently subject to solo capital requirements established by the FCA’s Investment Firm Prudential Regime. In addition, BGC European Holdings L.P.is subject to the FCA’s consolidated capital requirements. The capital requirements of our French entities (and their EU branches) are predominantly set by the ACPR and AMF. U.K. and EU authorities apply stringent provisions with respect to capital applicable to the operation of these brokerage firms, which vary depending upon the nature and extent of their activities.
In addition, the majority of our other foreign subsidiaries are subject to similar regulation by the relevant authorities in the jurisdictions in which they do business, such as Australia, Hong Kong and Singapore. These regulations often include minimum capital requirements, which are subject to change. Further, we may become subject to capital requirements in other foreign jurisdictions in which we currently operate or in which we may enter.
We expect to continue to maintain levels of capital in excess of regulatory minimums. Should we fail to maintain the required capital, we may be required to reduce or suspend our brokerage operations during the period that we are not in compliance with capital requirements and may be subject to suspension or revocation of registration or withdrawal of authorization or other disciplinary action from domestic and international regulators, which would have a material adverse effect on us. In addition, should we fail to maintain the capital required by clearing organizations of which we are a member, our ability to clear through those clearing organizations may be impaired, which may materially adversely affect our ability to process trades.
If the capital rules are changed or expanded, or if there is an unusually large charge against capital, our operations that require the intensive use of capital would be limited. Our ability to withdraw capital from our regulated subsidiaries is subject to restrictions, which, in turn, could limit our ability to pay our indebtedness, other expenses, and dividends on our Class A common stock, to repurchase shares of our Class A common stock or to pursue strategic acquisitions or other growth opportunities. It is possible that capital requirements may also be relaxed as a result of future changes in U.S. regulation, although no assurance can be given that such changes will occur. We cannot predict our future capital needs or our ability to obtain additional financing. No assurance can be given that required capital levels will remain stable or that we will not incur substantial expenses in connection with maintaining current or increased capital levels or engaging in business restructurings or other activities in response to these requirements.
In addition, financial services firms such as ours are subject to numerous conflicts of interests or perceived conflicts, including principal trading and trading to make markets. We have adopted various policies, controls, and procedures to address or limit actual or perceived conflicts, and we will regularly seek to review and update our policies, controls and procedures. However, these policies, controls and procedures may result in increased costs and additional operational personnel. Failure to adhere to these policies, controls and procedures may result in regulatory sanctions or customer claims.
Even after the award of permanent registration status to our SEFs, we will incur significant additional costs, our revenues may be lower than in the past and our financial condition and results of operations may be materially adversely affected by future events.
The Dodd-Frank Act mandated that certain cleared swaps (subject to an exemption from the clearing requirement) trade on either a SEF or DCM. SEF and DCM core principles relate to trading and product requirements, compliance and audit-trail obligations, governance and disciplinary requirements, operational capabilities, surveillance obligations and financial information and resource requirements. While these principles may or may not be permanently enforced, we do know that we will be subject to a more complex regulatory framework going forward, and that there will be significant costs to prepare for and to comply with these ongoing regulatory requirements and potential amendments. We will incur increased legal fees,
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personnel expenses, and other costs, as we work to analyze and implement the necessary legal structure for full compliance with all applicable regulations. There will also be significant costs related to the development, operation and enhancement of our technology relating to trade execution, trade reporting, surveillance, compliance and back-up and disaster recovery plans designed to meet the requirements of the regulators.
On November 2, 2023, the SEC passed rules for the registration and regulation of security-based swap execution facilities. New Regulation SE under the Exchange Act creates a regime for the registration and regulation of security-based SEFs. The new regulatory framework was one of the major reforms required under Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Act relating to the over-the-counter derivatives market. In developing this proposal, the SEC sought to harmonize as closely as practicable with parallel rules of the CFTC that govern SEFs and swap execution generally. Regulation SE implements the Exchange Act’s trade execution requirement for security-based swaps and address the cross-border application of that requirement; implement Section 765 of the Dodd-Frank Act to mitigate conflicts of interest at security-based SEFs and national securities exchanges that trade security-based swaps; and promote consistency between proposed Regulation SE and existing rules under the Exchange Act.
While we continue to have a compliance framework in place to comply with both CFTC and SEC rules and regulations, it is possible that the existing regulatory framework may be amended, which amendments could have a positive or negative impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Certain banks and other institutions may continue to be limited in their conduct of proprietary trading and may be further limited from trading in certain derivatives. The new rules, including the proprietary trading restrictions for certain banks and other institutions, could materially impact transaction volumes and liquidity in these markets and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely impacted as a result.
If we fail to continue to qualify as a SEF under any of these conditions, we may be unable to maintain our position as a provider of execution and brokerage services in the markets for many of the OTC products for which we have traditionally acted as an intermediary. This would have a broad impact on us and could have a material adverse effect on our business’ financial condition, results operations, and prospects.
Our energy and commodities activities, including those related to environmental and emission, power, oil, and natural gas products, subject us to extensive regulation, potential catastrophic events and other risks that may result in our incurring significant costs and liabilities.
We engage in the brokerage of a wide range of energy and commodities products, including environmental and emission, power, oil, and natural gas products. These activities subject us and our customers to extensive regulatory oversight, involving federal, state, and local and foreign commodities, energy, environmental, and other governmental laws, and regulations and may result in significant costs and liabilities.
We or our clients may incur substantial costs in complying with current or future laws and regulations relating to our energy and commodities-related activities. New regulation of OTC derivatives markets in the U.S. and similar legislation proposed or adopted abroad could impose significant costs and new requirements on the commodities derivatives activities of us and our customers. Therefore, the overall reputation of us or our customers may be adversely affected by the current or future regulatory environment. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations may result in substantial civil and criminal penalties and fines for market participants.
The commodities-related activities of us and our customers are also subject to the risk of unforeseen catastrophic events, many of which are outside of our control, which could result in significant liabilities for us or our customers. We may not be able to obtain insurance to cover these risks, and the insurance that we have may be inadequate to cover our liabilities. The occurrence of any of such events may prevent us from performing under our agreements with customers, may impair our operations, and may result in litigation, regulatory action, negative publicity or other reputational harm, which could have a material negative effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected by new laws, rules, or regulations or by changes in existing law, rules or regulations or the application thereof.
The financial services industry, in general, is heavily regulated. Proposals for additional legislation further regulating the financial services industry are periodically introduced in the U.S., the U.K., the EU, and other geographic areas. Moreover, the agencies regulating the financial services industry also periodically adopt changes to their rules and regulations, particularly as these agencies have increased the focus and intensity of their regulation of the financial services industry.
Changes in legislation and in the rules and regulations promulgated by the SEC, FINRA, the CFTC, the NFA, the U.S. Treasury, the FCA, the European Commission, ESMA and other domestic and international regulators and self-regulatory organizations, as well as changes in the interpretation or enforcement of existing laws and rules, often directly affect the method
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of operation and profitability of brokerages and could result in restrictions in the way we conduct our business. For example, the U.S. Congress, the U.S. Treasury, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the SEC and the CFTC are continuing to review the nature and scope of their regulation and oversight of the government securities markets and U.S. securities and derivative markets. Furthermore, in Europe, MiFID II was implemented in January 2018. MiFID II requires a significant part of the market in these instruments to trade on trading venues subject to pre- and post-trade transparency regimes and non-discriminatory fee structures and access. In addition, it has had a particularly significant impact in several key areas, including corporate governance, transaction reporting, technology synchronization, best execution and investor protection. MiFID II also introduced a new regulated execution venue category to accompany the existing Multilateral Trading Facility regime. The new venue category is known as an OTF, and it captures much of the voice and hybrid trading in EU. Certain of our existing EU derivatives and fixed income execution business now take place on OTFs, and we currently operate one OTF for each of the U.K.-regulated entities, one in France at Aurel BGC and one MTF under GFI Securities Limited.
In the U.S., the SEC has proposed rules to expand Regulation ATS to cover ATS trading government securities. In addition, the proposed rules extend Regulation SCI to ATSs trading government securities.
Further, the authorities of non-U.S. countries in which we have offices or do business may from time-to-time institute changes to tax law that, if applicable to us, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects. Similarly, the U.S. has proposed a series of changes to U.S. tax law, some of which could apply to us. It is not possible to predict if any of these new provisions will be enacted or, if they are, what form they may take. It is possible that one or more of such provisions could negatively impact our costs and our effective tax rate, which would affect our after-tax earnings. If any of such changes to tax law were implemented and/or deemed to apply to us, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects, including on our ability to attract, compensate and retain brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel.
While we continue to have a compliance framework in place to comply with both existing and proposed rules and regulations, it is possible that the existing regulatory framework may be amended, which amendments could have a positive or negative impact on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We believe that uncertainty and potential delays around the final form that such new laws and regulations might take may negatively impact trading volumes in certain markets in which we transact. Increased capital requirements may also diminish transaction velocity. We believe that it remains premature to know conclusively the specific aspects of the U.S., U.K. and EU proposals which may directly impact our business as some proposals have not yet been finalized and others which have been proposed remain subject to further debate. Additionally, unintended consequences of the laws, rules and regulations may adversely affect us in ways yet to be determined. We are unable to predict how any of these new laws, rules, regulations and proposals will be implemented or in what form, or whether any additional or similar changes to laws, rules or regulations, including the interpretation or implementation thereof, will occur in the future. Any such action could affect us in substantial and unpredictable ways and could have a material adverse effect on our businesses, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
In addition, we are subject to tax risks inherent in operating a global business in various jurisdictions, including increased taxes and levies and future changes in income tax regulations.
Extensive regulation of our business restricts and limits our operations and activities and results in ongoing exposure to potential significant costs and penalties, including fines, sanctions, enhanced oversight, increased financial and capital requirements, and additional restrictions or limitations on our ability to conduct or grow our business.
The financial services industry, including our business, is subject to extensive regulation, which is very costly. The requirements imposed by regulators are designed to ensure the integrity of the financial markets and to protect customers and other third parties who deal with us and are not designed to protect the holders of our stock, notes or other securities. These regulations will often serve to restrict or limit our operations and activities, including through capital, customer protection and market conduct requirements.
Our business is subject to regulation by governmental and self-regulatory organizations in the jurisdictions in which we operate around the world. Many of these regulators, including U.S. and non-U.S. government agencies and self-regulatory organizations, as well as state securities commissions in the U.S., are empowered to bring enforcement actions and to conduct administrative proceedings and examinations, inspections, and investigations, which may result in costs, penalties, fines, enhanced oversight, increased financial and capital requirements, restrictions or limitations, and censure, suspension, or expulsion. Self-regulatory organizations such as FINRA and the NFA, along with statutory bodies such as the SEC, the CFTC, and the FCA, and other international regulators, require strict compliance with their rules and regulations.
Firms in the financial services industry, including us, have experienced increased scrutiny in recent years, and penalties, fines and other sanctions sought by regulatory authorities, including the SEC, the CFTC, FINRA, the NFA, state securities commissions and state attorneys general in the U.S., and the FCA in the U.K. and other international regulators, have
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increased accordingly. This trend toward a heightened regulatory and enforcement environment can be expected to continue for the foreseeable future, and this environment may create uncertainty. From time to time, we have been and are subject to periodic examinations, inspections, and investigations, including periodic risk assessment and related reviews of our U.K. group. As a result of such reviews, we have been and may be subject to increased monitoring and be required to include or enhance certain regulatory structures and frameworks in our operating procedures, systems, and controls.
Increasingly, the FCA has developed a practice of requiring senior officers of regulated firms to provide individual attestations or undertakings as to the status of the firm’s control environment, compliance with specific rules and regulations, or the completion of required tasks. Officers of BGC Brokers L.P. and GFI Brokers Limited have given such attestations or undertakings in the past and may do so again in the future. Similarly, the FCA can seek a voluntary requirement notice, which is a voluntary undertaking on behalf of a firm that is made publicly available on the FCA’s website. The SMCR came into effect in the U.K. on December 9, 2019. Accountability requirements now fall on senior managers, and a wider population of U.K. staff are subject to certification requirements. SMCR has increased the cost of compliance and will potentially increase financial penalties for non-compliance. Disciplinary actions by the SEC, the CFTC, the FCA, self-regulatory organizations and state securities administrators have impacted, and may impact in the future, our acquisitions of regulated businesses or entry into new business lines, and have resulted, and may result in the future, in significant costs and remediation expenses.
Risks Related to Competition
Because competition for the services of brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel in the financial services industry is intense, it could affect our ability to attract and retain a sufficient number of highly skilled brokers or other professional services personnel, in turn adversely impacting our revenues, resulting in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our ability to provide high-quality brokerage and other professional services and maintain long-term relationships with our customers depends, in large part, upon our brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel. As a result, we must attract and retain highly qualified personnel.
Competition for talent is intense, especially for brokers with experience in the specialized businesses in which we participate or may seek to enter. If we are unable to hire or retain highly qualified professionals, including retaining those employed by businesses we acquire in the future, we may not be able to enter new brokerage markets or develop new products or services. If we lose key brokers in a particular market in which we participate, our revenues may decrease, and we may lose market share.
In addition, recruitment and retention of qualified professionals could result in substantial additional costs, including costs and management time associated with litigation, arbitration or other claims related to employee hires and/or departures.
If we fail to attract new personnel, or fail to retain and motivate our current personnel, or if we incur increased costs or restrictions associated with attracting and retaining personnel (such as lawsuits, arbitrations, sign-on or guaranteed bonuses or forgivable loans), our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.
We face strong competition from brokerages, exchanges, and other financial services firms, many of which have greater market presence, marketing capabilities and financial, technological and personnel resources than we have, which could lead to pricing pressures that could adversely impact our revenues and as a result could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
The financial services industry is intensely competitive and is expected to remain so. We primarily compete with two major, diversified inter-dealer brokers and financial intermediaries: TP ICAP and Tradition. TP ICAP and Tradition are currently publicly traded companies. Other inter-dealer broker and financial intermediary competitors include a number of smaller, privately held firms that tend to specialize in specific products and services or geographic areas.
We also compete with companies that provide alternative products and services, such as contracts traded on futures exchanges, and trading processes, such as the direct dealer-to-dealer market for government securities and stock exchange markets for corporate equities, debt and other securities. We increasingly compete, directly or indirectly, with exchanges for the execution of trades in certain products, mainly in derivatives such as futures, swaps, options, and options on futures, such as the platforms operated by the CME Group and we will compete directly with the CME Group following the active launch of our FMX Futures Exchange. Certain exchanges have made and will likely continue to make attempts to move certain OTC-traded products to exchange-based execution, or to create listed derivatives products that mimic the qualities of similar OTC-traded products. We also compete with consortia, which are created or funded from time to time by banks, broker-dealers and other companies involved in financial services to compete in various markets with exchanges and inter-dealer brokers. We may compete in OTC-traded products with platforms, such as those owned by MarketAxess Holdings Inc. and Tradeweb Markets, in fixed income products or various OTC FX platforms owned by exchanges such as CBOE and Deutsche Börse. In addition,
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financial data and information firms such as LSEG Data & Analytics and Bloomberg L.P. operate trading platforms for both OTC and listed products and may attempt to compete with us for trade execution in the future.
Some of our competitors have greater market presence, marketing capabilities and financial, technological and personnel resources than we have and, as a result, our competitors may be able to:
develop and expand their network infrastructures and product and service offerings more efficiently or more quickly than we can;
adapt more swiftly to new or emerging technologies and changes in customer requirements;
identify and consummate acquisitions and other opportunities more effectively than we can;
hire our brokers, salespeople, managers, technology professionals and other front-office personnel;
devote greater resources to the marketing and sale of their products and services;
more effectively leverage existing relationships with customers and strategic partners or exploit more recognized brand names to market and sell their products and services;
provide a lower cost structure and lower commissions and fees;
provide access to trading in products or a range of products that at any particular time we do not offer; and
develop services that are preferred by our customers.
In addition, new competitors may emerge, and our product and service lines may be threatened by new technologies or market trends that reduce the value of our existing product and service lines or we may enter new businesses, including crypto-currency and similar opportunities for which there are high barriers to entry or for which we may be regulated. If we are not able to compete successfully in the future, our revenues could be adversely impacted, and as a result our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.
Competition for financial brokerage transactions also has resulted in substantial commission discounting by brokers that compete with us for business. Further discounting could adversely impact our revenues and margins and as a result could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Our operations also include the sale of pricing and transactional data and information produced by our brokerage operations to securities information processors and/or vendors. There is a high degree of competition in pricing and transaction reporting products and services, and such businesses may become more competitive in the future. Competitors and customers of our financial brokerage business have together and individually offered market data and information products and services in competition with those offered and expected to be offered by us.
Consolidation and concentration of market share in the banking, brokerage, exchange and financial services industries could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects because we may not be able to compete successfully.
In recent years, there has been substantial consolidation and concentration of market share among companies in the banking, brokerage, exchange, and financial services industries, resulting in increasingly large existing and potential competitors, and increased concentration in markets dominated by some of our largest customers. In addition, some of our large broker-dealer customers have reduced their sales and trading business in fixed income, currency, and commodities.
The combination of this consolidation and concentration of market share and the reduction by large customers of certain businesses may lead to increased concentration among our brokerage customers, which may reduce our ability to negotiate pricing and other matters with our customers and lower volumes. Additionally, the sales and trading global revenue market share has generally become more concentrated over the past five years among five of the top investment banks across equities, fixed income, currencies, and commodities.
We also face existing and potential competition from large exchanges, which seek or may seek to migrate trading from the inter-dealer market to their own platform. Consolidation and concentration of market share are occurring in this area as well. From 2017 to 2021, for example, we saw consolidation and increased competition from several of our competitors, such as Tradeweb’s acquisition of Nasdaq’s U.S. fixed income trading platform (formerly known as eSpeed and owned by us) and TP ICAP’s acquisition of Liquidnet. Consolidation among exchanges may increase their financial resources and ability to compete with us.
Continued consolidation and concentration of market share in the financial services industry and especially among our customers could lead to the exertion of additional pricing pressure by our customers, impacting the commissions and spreads we generate from our brokerage services. Further, the consolidation and concentration among exchanges, and expansion by these exchanges into derivative and other non-equity trading markets, will increase competition for customer trades and place
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additional pricing pressure on commissions and spreads. These developments have increased competition from firms with potentially greater access to capital resources than we have. Finally, consolidation among our competitors other than exchanges could result in increased resources and product or service offerings for our competitors. If we are not able to compete successfully in the future, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected.
Risks Related to Our International Operations
We are subject to various risks inherent in doing business in the international financial markets, in addition to those unique to the regulated brokerage industry.
We currently provide products and services to customers in many foreign countries, and we may seek to further expand our operations into additional jurisdictions. On a consolidated basis, revenues from foreign countries were approximately $1.4 billion, or approximately 68% of total revenues for the year ended December 31, 2023. In many countries, the laws and rules and regulations applicable to the financial services industry are uncertain and evolving, and it may be difficult for us to determine the exact requirements of local regulations in every jurisdiction. Our inability to remain in compliance with local laws and rules and regulations in a particular foreign jurisdiction could have a significant and negative effect not only on our business in that market but also on our reputation generally. If we are unable to manage any of these risks effectively, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be adversely affected.
There are also certain additional political, economic, legal, operational, and other risks inherent in doing business in international financial markets, particularly in the regulated financial services industry. These risks include:
less developed automation in exchanges, depositories and national clearing systems;
additional or unexpected changes in regulatory requirements, capital requirements, tariffs and other trade barriers;
the impact of the laws, rules and regulations of foreign governmental and regulatory authorities of each country in which we conduct business;
possible nationalization, expropriation and regulatory, political and price controls;
difficulties in staffing and managing international operations;
capital controls, exchange controls and other restrictive governmental actions;
failure to develop effective compliance and reporting systems, which could result in regulatory penalties in the applicable jurisdiction;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates;
reduced protections for intellectual property rights;
adverse labor and employment laws, including those related to compensation, tax, health insurance and benefits, and social security;
the outbreak of hostilities, mass demonstrations, pandemics, or other global events; and
potentially adverse tax consequences arising from compliance with foreign laws, rules, and regulations to which our international businesses are subject and the repatriation of overseas earnings.
Credit Risk
Credit ratings downgrades or defaults by us, Cantor or another large financial institution could adversely affect us or financial markets generally.
The commercial soundness of many financial institutions may be closely interrelated as a result of interconnectedness arising from credit, trading, clearing or other relationships between the institutions. A default by one of our customers could lead to liquidity concerns in our business and, to the extent that Cantor or another entity that clears for us has difficulty meeting capital requirements or otherwise meeting its obligations, we may need to provide our own liquidity.
As a result, concerns about, or a default or threatened default by, one institution could lead to significant market-wide liquidity problems, losses, or defaults by other institutions. This is sometimes referred to as “systemic risk” and may adversely affect financial intermediaries, such as clearing agencies, clearing houses, banks, securities firms and exchanges, with which we transact on a regular basis, and therefore could adversely affect us. Similarly, our vendors, including insurance companies and
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other providers, are subject to normal business risks as well as risks related to changes in U.S. and international economic and market conditions. Failure of any of these vendor institutions could also materially adversely affect us.
Our credit ratings and associated outlooks are critical to our reputation and operational and financial success. Our credit ratings and associated outlooks are influenced by a number of factors, including: operating environment, regulatory environment, earnings and profitability trends the rating agencies’ view of our funding and liquidity management practices, balance sheet size/composition and resulting leverage, cash flow coverage of interest, composition and size of the capital base, available liquidity, outstanding borrowing levels, our competitive position in the industry, our relationships in the industry, including with Cantor, acquisitions or dispositions of assets and other matters. Our credit ratings and/or the associated rating outlooks can be revised upward or downward at any time by a rating agency if such rating agency decides the circumstances of BGC or related companies warrant such a change. Any negative change or a downgrade in credit ratings and/or the associated ratings outlooks could adversely affect the availability of debt financing on acceptable terms, as well as the cost and other terms upon which any such financing can be obtained. See “—Risks Related to Liquidity, Funding and Indebtedness—Credit ratings downgrades could adversely affect our cost of capital and the availability of debt financing.” In addition, credit ratings and associated outlooks may be important to customers or counterparties in certain markets and in certain transactions. Additional collateral may be required in the event of a negative change in credit ratings or rating outlooks.
Our activities are subject to credit and performance risks, which could result in us incurring significant losses that could materially adversely affect us.
Our activities are subject to credit and performance risks. For example, our customers and counterparties may not deliver securities to one of our operating subsidiaries which has sold those securities to another customer. If the securities due to be delivered have increased in value, there is a risk that we may have to expend our own funds in connection with the purchase of other securities to consummate the transaction. While we will take steps to ensure that our customers and counterparties have high credit standings and that financing transactions are adequately collateralized, the large dollar amounts that may be involved in our broker-dealer and financing transactions could subject us to significant losses if, as a result of customer or counterparty failures to meet commitments, we were to incur significant costs in liquidating or covering our positions in the open market.
We have adopted policies and procedures to identify, monitor and manage credit and market risks, in both agency and principal transactions, leveraging risk reporting and control procedures and by monitoring credit standards applicable to our customers and counterparties. These policies and procedures, however, may not be fully effective, particularly against fraud, unauthorized trading, and similar incidents. Some of these risk management methods depend upon the evaluation of information regarding markets, customers, counterparties, or other matters that are publicly available or otherwise accessible by us. That information may not, in all cases, be accurate, complete, up-to-date, or properly evaluated. If our policies and procedures are not fully effective or we are not always successful in monitoring or evaluating the risks to which we are, or may be, exposed, our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects could be materially adversely affected. In addition, our insurance policies do not provide coverage for these risks.
Transactions executed on a matched principal basis where the instrument has the same or similar characteristics to the counterparty may expose us to correlation risk. In this case, the counterparty’s inability to meet its obligations will also result in the value of the instrument declining. For example, if we were to enter into a transaction to sell to a customer a bond or structured note where the issuer or credit support provider was such customer’s affiliate, the value of the instrument would decline in value in tandem with the default. This correlation has the potential effect of magnifying the credit loss.
We are subject to financing risk because, if a transaction does not settle on a timely basis, the resulting unmatched position may need to be financed, either directly by us or through one of the clearing organizations, at our expense. These charges may be recoverable from the failing counterparty, but sometimes they are not. In addition, in instances where the unmatched position or failure to deliver is prolonged or widespread due to rapid or widespread declines in liquidity for an instrument, there may also be regulatory capital charges required to be taken by us, which, depending on their size and duration, could limit our business flexibility or even force the curtailment of those portions of our business requiring higher levels of capital. Credit or settlement losses of this nature could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Disruptions in the financial markets have also led to the exposure of several cases of financial fraud. If we were to have trading activity on an agency or principal basis with an entity engaged in defrauding investors or counterparties, we could bear the risk that the counterparty would not have the financial resources to meet their obligations, resulting in a credit loss. Similarly, we may engage in financial transactions with third parties that have been victims of financial fraud and, therefore, may not have the financial resources to meet their obligations to us.
In agency transactions, we charge a commission for connecting buyers and sellers and assisting in the negotiation of the price and other material terms of the transaction. After all material terms of a transaction are agreed upon, we identify the
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buyer and seller to each other and leave them to settle the trade directly. We are exposed to credit risk for commissions, as we bill customers for our agency brokerage services. Our customers may default on their obligations to us due to disputes, bankruptcy, lack of liquidity, operational failure, or other reasons. Any losses arising from such defaults could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
In emerging market countries, we primarily conduct our business on an agency and matched principal basis, where the risk of counterparty default, inconvertibility events and sovereign default is greater than in more developed countries.
We enter transactions in cash and derivative instruments primarily on an agency and matched principal basis with counterparties domiciled in countries in Latin America, Eastern Europe and Asia. Transactions with these counterparties are generally in instruments or contracts of sovereign or corporate issuers located in the same country as the counterparty. This exposes us to a higher degree of sovereign or convertibility risk than in more developed countries. In addition, these risks may entail correlated risks. A correlated risk arises when the counterparty’s inability to meet its obligations also corresponds to a decline in the value of the instrument traded. In the case of a sovereign convertibility event or outright default, the counterparty to the trade may be unable to pay or transfer payment of an instrument purchased out of the country when the value of the instrument has declined due to the default or convertibility event. The global financial crisis of recent years has heightened the risk of sovereign or convertibility events in emerging markets similar to the events that occurred in previous financial downturns. Our risk management function monitors the creditworthiness of emerging countries and counterparties on an ongoing basis and, when the risk of inconvertibility or sovereign default is deemed to be too great, correlated transactions or all transactions may be restricted or suspended. However, there can be no assurance that these procedures will be effective in controlling these risks.
Concentration and Market Risk
The rates business is our largest product category, and we could be significantly affected by any downturn in the rates product market.
We offer our brokerage services in five broad product categories: Rates, Credit, FX, Energy and Commodities, and Equities. Our brokerage revenues are strongest in our Rates asset class, which accounted for approximately 33.3% of our total brokerage revenues on a consolidated basis for the year ended December 31, 2023. While we focus on expanding and have successfully diversified our product offerings, we may currently be exposed to any adverse change or condition affecting the interest rates market. Accordingly, the concentration of our brokerage business on rates products subjects our results to a greater market risk than if we had more diversified product offerings.
Due to our current customer concentration, a loss of one or more of our significant customers could materially harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
For the year ended December 31, 2023, on a consolidated basis, our top ten customers, collectively, accounted for approximately 30.0% of our total revenues. We have limited long-term contracts with certain of these customers. If we were to lose one or more of these significant customers for any reason, including as a result of further consolidation and concentration in the financial services industry, and not be compensated for such loss by doing additional business with other customers or by adding new customers, our revenues would decline significantly and our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects would materially suffer.
Our revenues and profitability could be reduced or otherwise materially adversely affected by pricing plans relating to commissions and fees on our trading platform.
We negotiate from time to time with certain customers (including many of our largest customers) to enter into customized volume discount pricing plans. While the pricing plans are designed to encourage customers to be more active on our Fully Electronic trade execution platform, they reduce the amount of commissions and fees payable to us by certain of our most active customers for certain products, which could reduce our revenues and constrain our profitability. From time to time, these pricing plans come up for renewal. Failure of a number of our larger customers to enter into renewed agreements, or agreements on terms as favorable as existing agreements, could have a material adverse effect on volumes on our Fully Electronic trade execution platform, the commissions payable to us, our revenues and our profitability.
Reduced spreads in pricing, levels of trading activity and trading through market makers and/or specialists could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
Computer-generated buy/sell programs and other technological advances, including AI, and regulatory changes in the marketplace may continue to tighten securities spreads. In addition, new and enhanced alternative trading systems, such as
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electronic communications networks, have emerged as alternatives for individual and institutional investors, as well as brokerage firms. As such systems do not direct trades through market makers, their use could result in reduced revenues for us or for our customers. In addition, reduced trading levels could lead to lower revenues which could materially adversely affect our businesses, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
We have market risk exposure from unmatched principal transactions entered into by some of our desks, as well as holdings of marketable equity securiti